Manuscripts and archives

Hennepin County Library houses several hundred manuscript and archives collections in Special Collections at Minneapolis Central Library. Notable among them are the papers of Charlie’s Café Exceptionale, StarTribune columnist Barbara Flanagan, the politician Mabeth Hurd Paige, the cartoonist Charles Bartholomew, the Minneapolis Aquatennial, the Minneapolis Neighborhood Revitalization Program, and the Minneapolis Community Planning and Economic Development department.

All collections are available for viewing and use in Special Collections.

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Finding aids

Aldrich, Darragh

Darragh Aldrich (also known as Clara Chaplin Thomas) was born December 31, 1884 in Richmond, Indiana and died on March 31, 1967 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. After graduating cum laude from the University of Minnesota, Aldrich became a renowned novelist, poet, playwright, WCCO radio announcer, teacher, and newspaper columnist. She was the first woman columnist in Minneapolis and also was a Sunday editor at the Minneapolis Morning Tribune.

M/A 1994.01.01

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All American Study Club

The women’s study club was organized in November 1919. The clubs purpose was to study American History, American Literature and any topic pertaining to American interests. Mrs. William Crosbie was the first president.

The club was federated in 1920. The membership was about sixteen to twenty-six members. The clubs had luncheon meetings held on the first and third Fridays of each month. The club also organized service days and social meetings each year. During World War II, many special meetings were held for the purpose of sewing for the Red Cross.

M/A 2000.88.01

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Alternates

Ten women from southeast Minneapolis organized the club on October 4, 1889. The club was the second oldest in the Fifth District Minnesota Federation of Women’s Clubs. The object of the club was “intellectual improvement.” The club met on alternate Fridays with programs on a variety of subjects. During the war years the club assisted the Red Cross and knit items for soldiers.

M/A 2000.23.01

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Altrusa Club of Minneapolis

Organized April 13, 1931 and received charter on December 13, 1939. Altrusa Clubs are classified and selective membership clubs composed of women who hold executive positions in diversified businesses and professions, who own and operate their own firms, and who are practicing professionals. The purpose of the organization is "to afford a main channel through which executive, business and professional women representing a wide variety of occupational fields but with similar civic and altruistic motivations can work together, thereby making possible the promotion of their common interests and more effective the contribution of their combined services to civic, national, and international understanding and betterment." The group was founded in 1917 in Nashville, Tennessee as a service club; there were several local clubs in Minnesota. The club helped raise money for grants-in-aid to women from Australia, Asia Latin America, the Middle East and New Zealand. They also raised money for the Founders Fund Vocational Aid Project which gave grants to women for training or re-training for a job or purchase of equipment to start a business.

M/A 2000.147.01

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American Association of University Women: Minneapolis Branch, Pen Group

The Pen Group began in the late 1920's as a writer's workshop of the Minneapolis Branch of the American Association of University Women. The purpose of the group was: to promote creative writing by encouragement, stimulation, criticism, discipline; to share resources and market information; to encourage and invite other members of AAUW to join the group and express their feelings and experience in writing. The goals of the group are to write regularly and to sell their writing. At meetings members read their work and received criticism from members and often a professional writer.

M/A 2000.92.01

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American Committee of Minneapolis

Organized in 1919. The purpose of the committee was to fight against socialism through every channel possible. It was composed of citizens from all walks of life. James H. Ellison was chairman. The educational campaign included public speakers and circulation of literature. This campaign hoped to maintain and encourage better citizenship by furthering a better understanding of the government and the capitalist system. The group provided speakers and published and distributed many pamphlets.

M/A 2000.93.01

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Amphictyons

Organized in 1905 and federated in 1906. Little information is available on this women's study group. The name of the group could come from the Greek, meaning "neighbors." Study programs included history, literature, and countries of the world.

M/A 2000.94.01

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Anderson, Ruth

Ruth Anderson (also known as Evelyn Rueth Anderson, Evelyn Ruth Anderson-Reohr, Evelyn Ruth Anderson, Ruth Anderson-Reohr) was an accomplished Minneapolis violinist in the late 19th and early 20th century. She trained under Eugene Ysaye in Belgium. She was later the director of the Y.M.C.A., Seaton Guild, First Baptist Church, Nicollet car barn amateur orchestras.

She married Charles D'Arlington Reohr on May 22, 1901 and they divorced in 1908. Her sister, Wilma Anderson-Gilman played piano and sometimes performed with Ruth. In 1920, Ruth joined the faculty of the MacPhail School of Music. She taught orchestra conducting, and she was the organizer and director of orchestras in the city schools.

M/A 1998.47.01

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Apollo Club

The history of the Apollo Club dates back to the spring of 1895 when the first steps were taken toward the formation of a male chorus. It was formally organized on September 23, 1895. Emil Oberhoffer was the first conductor and quickly established a very high standard of choral singing for the group. The Club gave its first public performance on April 13, 1896 at the Lyceum Theatre in Minneapolis. It was customary for the chorus to present three regular concerts every season. Other conductors and accompanists have included Henry S. Woodruff, Theodore Bergman, Elsie Wolf Campbell, William Rhys-Herbert, William MacPhail, James S. Allen, and Roger Hoel. From its inception, the club adopted a policy of bringing distinguished artists to Minneapolis.

M/A 2000.159.01-04

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Argosy Club

Organized October 26, 1897 by a group of south Minneapolis neighborhood women. They were interested in serious study, thus sending out their argosy -- their ship -- to bring back to them knowledge of different countries, geography, art, literature, and outstanding characters. Programs were given by club members and in later years by University professors.

M/A 2000.95.01

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Art History Club

Organizational date of this women's study club is unknown. The earliest program is dated 1898. The programs dealt with art related subjects -- sculpture, architecture, art of foreign countries, as well as interior decoration, pottery, and porcelain, among others.

M/A 2000.96.01

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Atawasios Club

This women's club was organized as the Chicago Avenue Literary Club in October 1894. The later name was adopted in April 1903. The object of the club was the study of literature, history and kindred subjects in the United States and foreign countries.

M/A 2000.97.01

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Athenaeum Club

Organized in late 1920 by a group of young mothers who felt the desire to continue the study they left off when leaving school. The name was chosen because the word originally meant a school for the promotion of literary and scientific study. Miscellaneous subjects were studied as well as Wells' "Outline of History."

M/A 2000.98.01

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Attic Club

Organized in 1909 by a group of 13 artists with Theodore Keene (then director of the Minneapolis School of Art) leading the club. The club took its name from its quarters on the top floor of Times building at 114 S. 4th Street (the club later moved to 614 W. Lake St. and other locations). By 1926 there were about 52 members. The club held exhibitions and social parties including costume balls and plays. The club symbol is a huge spider suggestive of an attic.

M/A 2000.99.01-03

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Authors Study Club

Seven women organized the club on December 7, 1896. They decided to study authors and their works and called the club the Ladies Monday Literary Club. In February 1897, the name of the club was changed to the Authors Study Club.

In 1904 the Club inaugurated reciprocity days with other clubs in the Fifth District.

M/A 2000.100.01-03

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Avery, Stanley R.

Born in Yonkers, New York, Stanley Robert Avery (December 14, 1879 – September 17, 1967) was a musician, conductor, and composer of over 70 works. He was an organist in Yonkers from 1896-1910 and in Minneapolis at St. Mark’s Episcopal Cathedral from 1910-1950. In Minneapolis he lived on 435 Ridgewood and 806 Nicollet Avenues. Additionally, he served as Blake School's music director from 1934 until 1943, and was a faculty member at the MacPhail School and College of Music from 1919 to 1966. During his time in Minnesota, Avery was also the president of the Civic Music League, the president of the Minnesota Music Teachers Association in 1921, the Episcopal Choir Guild in 1933, and treasurer of the Minnesota Chapter of the American Guild of Organists. Avery composed the operettas "Ichabod Crane" and "Merry Mexican" the comic opera "Katrina," a one-act opera, "The Quartet," a variety of church music, and many other pieces for organ and piano. He was married to Elizabeth Avery and had two daughters and a son.

M/A 1994.02.01-06

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Bailiff, Matilda Victorine

Matilda Victorine Baillif was born in Bloomington, Minnesota on March 24, 1883. The daughter of Matilda Pepin and Jules Adolph Baillif, she had 5 brothers (Joseph Adolphus, John Theodore, Victor Alfred, Julies Earle, and Louis Oswald) and 1 sister (Stella Cordella). She graduated from Osakis High School, and received her B.A. and M.A. from the University of Minnesota. Baillif was licensed to teach a variety of subjects in Douglas, Hennepin, and Todd counties. She also worked as a court statistician. In the 1930s, Matilda Baillif began working as a private research counselor in Minneapolis and continued this work even after suffering a stroke in 1943 and a disabling hip injury in August 1948. Throughout her life, Baillif maintained ties to a large extended family. She died on February 3, 1957.

M/A 1994.03.01

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Baker, Patricia

Patricia Baker was born on the 17th of January, 1931. She attended high school at the Northrop Collegiate School and college at the Minneapolis School of Business and William Woods College. Later, she continued her education at the University of Minnesota and Macalester College. Baker volunteered with many organizations, including Friends of the Minneapolis Public Library and the Woman’s Club of Minneapolis. She served as a park commissioner for the 4th district--from Lake Calhoun to the Mississippi River, mostly between Olson Highway and Lake Street--for many years and was president of the Board several times. She was well-known for her part in convincing the Minneapolis Institute of Arts to stop charging admission fees. She died on the first of January, 1997.

M/A 1994.04.01-02

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Barnard, Floyd P. and Margaret Westenberger

Floyd P. Barnard was born on the 20th of January, 1897 in Mankato, Minnesota. He was a music teacher at Roosevelt High School and Jefferson Junior High School in Minneapolis, Minnesota. He was also a composer and Minneapolis Symphony musician--he played string bass in the Symphony Orchestra from 1922-1924. Barnard received his B.A. from the University of Minnesota, a Master’s degree from the University of Idaho, and a graduate degree in Musical Composition from Colorado State College. He composed many pieces of music for band and orchestra, including an instructional band book, The Introduction to Musical Knowledge

In 1940, Barnard married Margaret Westerberger. Margaret was born on the 13th of November, 1909. She attended the Northern State Teachers College in Aberdeen, South Dakota, and the University of Iowa, and taught voice at MacPhail School of Music.

Floyd Barnard died on October 15, 1987, followed shortly after by the death of his wife on November 21, 1987.

M/A 1998.43.01-04

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Barrett, Lucille

Minneapolis poet Lucille Barrett was born in 1903, the daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Roy Barrett. She died at the age of 18 on January 28, 1921 of tuberculosis before seeing her poetry in print in Harper's Monthly Magazine. Barrett lived on York Avenue in Minneapolis and attended West Side High School before her illness and death at Glen Lake Sanatorium in Hopkins, MN.

M/A 1994.05.01

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Bartholomew, Charles L.

Charles “Bart” Bartholomew was born in Chariton, Iowa on February 10, 1869 to parents Col. Orion A. and Mary Smith Bartholomew. He died on February 15, 1949, after a long career as a cartoonist, illustrator, and lecturer, perhaps best known for his political cartoons that featured on the front page of the Minneapolis Journal for the years spanning the turn of the 20th century.

M/A 1994.06.01-16

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Beacon Light Study Club

This south Minneapolis women's club was organized in March 1930. The objective of the club was the study of topics of the times and any other subject the club chose including literature, art, politics, education, and industry. At least once a month an active member would host a meeting, luncheon, or tea table to discuss the various topics.

M/A 2000.101.01

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Benidt, Bruce Weir

Bruce Benidt was born in Minneapolis in 1950. He graduated from New College in Sarasota, Florida with a bachelor’s degree and from the University of Minnesota with a master’s degree in journalism. He wrote "Library Book: Centennial History of the Minneapolis Public Library," as well as a self-published novel "Cross over the River: Lives of Stonewall Jackson." He has been a reporter for the Minneapolis Star and, after the merger, the Star Tribune, as well as a communications consultant and regular contributor to Star Tribune articles.

M/A 1994.07.01-03

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Bergquist, J. Victor

John Victor Bergquist (May 18, 1877 – February 26, 1935) was born in St. Peter, MN and received a Bachelor of Music from Gustavus Adolphus College in 1895 at age 18. Serving as the organist of Augustana Lutheran Church in Minneapolis for four years, Bergquist also studied with Gustavus Johnson, a leading Minneapolis composer-pianist and taught in the Johnson School of Music. 

In 1900 Bergquist went to Berlin for advanced training and moved to Paris in 1902 for additional study. Bergquist returned to Minneapolis in 1903 and reassumed his post as organist at Augustana Lutheran Church. In addition, Bergquist joined Gustavus Adolphus College as principal of the piano department, directed the male chorus of United Church Seminary and served as organist of the Apollo Club. While at Augustana Lutheran Church, Bergquist produced a major oratorio each year. His oratorio "Golgotha" was performed by a chorus of 200 and the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra in 1906.

In 1912, Bergquist left Minneapolis to head up the Music Conservatory at Augustana College, Rock Island, Illinois. Returning to Minneapolis in 1918, Bergquist assumed multiple musical roles including teaching organ, piano and composition at the MacPhail School, serving as Assistant Supervisor of Music in the Minneapolis Public Schools and as Dean of the Minnesota Chapter of the American Guild of Organists. From 1922-1929, Bergquist was the organist and choir director of Central Lutheran Church.

M/A 2012.07.01

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Bernat, Leo

Leo Bernat (1924-1988) was a Housing and Redevelopment Authority Commissioner for Minneapolis, 1974-1977. Leo and his wife Emilia both served as president of the University District Improvement Association and were neighborhood activists.

M/A 1998.05.01-02

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Berner, Felix A.

Felix A. Berner was born November 21, 1890 in Le Mars, Iowa. His father, Otto, was a fourth-generation Swiss watchmaker that moved to Le Mars in 1881. Felix attended school in Le Mars and watchmaker's school in St. Louis, Missouri. He worked for his father before and after World War I when he served in the United States Navy. He married Margaret Nicholson in Le Mars. 

In 1926 Felix and Margaret moved to Minneapolis and Felix worked in the diamond and silver department at J.B. Hudson Jewelry. Berner later was department head and retired as general manager with a staff of 30 in 1955. Berner was an internationally recognized expert on period silver. He was responsible for the place setting and registry idea in selling silverware. He noticed as a boy at his father's jewelry store that no consideration was given to matching patterns. The idea of coordinated place settings was new and novel then, and Berner arranged for the store to register brides and their patterns for the customers buying their gifts. This practice spread throughout the United States and has been extended to china and crystal. In Minneapolis Berner also introduced the idea of having girls register for a pattern and have utensils given to them at each birthday. If the girls and their gift-givers stuck to the registry, they would have a service for 8 by age 18.

After retirement the Berners moved to Laguna Beach, California where Felix worked part-time at B.D. Howes Jewelry Store. He was working there one day when two men held up the store at gunpoint and calmly scooped $127,000 worth of diamonds into a briefcase. Berner described it as the most harrowing experience he had during his 50 years of retail jewelry. The robbers did not harm anybody and were never captured.

Margaret died in 1977 and soon afterward Felix moved to Fort Dodge, Iowa where his brother Edwin resided and lived there until his death on October 31, 1993.

M/A 2011.03.01

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Bjeldanes, Augusta

Augusta Bjeldanes was the founding librarian of the Roosevelt High School library, which opened in 1922. Bjeldanes became good friends with many of her student assistants. Some she corresponded with after their graduations. Three of these students were Marjorie A. Cook, Philip Jones, and Ralph Magelssen. During World War II both Jones and Magelssen were transferred from their regular Army units to become members of the original cast of Irving Berlin’s musical production called "This is the Army." Former student Philip Jones wrote about being on the cast of the musical. The purpose of the musical was to publicize and raise funds for the Army Relief Effort. The musical was scheduled to open on Broadway on July 4th, 1942. It was released as a motion picture in 1943. All of the personnel including musicians were in the army. It was one of many fund raising events for the Army Relief Effort. 

In the course of their time in the service, Marjorie Cook and Philip Jones were stationed in the United States, Egypt, New Guinea, and Italy. The collection does not include any correspondence from Ralph Magelssen who went on to be a famous baritone singer but it does include autographed photographs and other publicity material concerning him.

M/A 1998.49.01

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Bogar, Rosa Mavins

Rosa Bogar was born in Orangeburg, SC. She later moved to upstate New York, then to Minneapolis in 1966. She worked as an educator for Minneapolis Public Schools, then later as a fashion designer and poet.

M/A 2015.01.01

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Boutelle, Grace Hodsdon

Grace Hodsdon Boutelle (1869-1957) was a poet, suffragette, musician, and ethnomusicologist who resided in Minneapolis from about 1912 to 1946. She was born in Bangor, Maine to Charles A. and Sarah Hodsdon Boutelle. Charles A. Boutelle was a nine-term Republican Congressman from Maine's 4th Congressional District, and Grace Hodson Boutelle served as his hostess in Washington after her mother died. In the late 1890s and early 1900s she had a number of poems published in Munsey's Magazine. 

While in Minneapolis, she worked as a voice and piano teacher, musical accompanist and musicologist. She presented lectures, wrote articles, and instructed local groups on English folk music. She also served as a patroness of the Phi Chapter of the Sigma Alpha Iota music fraternity. In the Minneapolis City Directory, she is listed as residing at 1123 Mt. Curve Avenue and later 2105 First Avenue South, first listed in 1912 and last listed in 1946, with her occupation give as music or piano teacher.

M/A 1994.08.01

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Bradstreet, John S.

John Bradstreet was born in Rowley, MA on December 14, 1845. He died in on August 10, 1914 following injuries sustained in a car accident, at age 69.

Bradstreet attended Putnam Academy in Newburyport, MA before starting to work at Gorham, the silver manufacturer in Rhode Island. He moved to Minneapolis in 1873 for health reasons, as he had tuberculosis. For the next 40 years, Bradstreet was an arbiter of good taste, cultivating residential and commercial clients of the elite social strata of the Northwest. Bradstreet established a furniture business that evolved into a globally known interior design store and studio called the Minneapolis Craftshouse, a haven for handicraft with a heavy Japanese influence. He was also a founding member of the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts in 1883, a group which later built the Minneapolis Institute of Art in 1915.

M/A 1994.10.01-02

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Brink, Carol Ryrie

Born on December 28, 1895 in Moscow, Idaho, Carol Ryrie Brink attended the University of Idaho (1914-1917) and received the Bachelor of Arts degree from the University of California Berkeley (1918). Soon thereafter she married Raymond Brink, a mathematician at the University of Minnesota.

Orphaned at a very young age, Brink desired to be a writer from an early age. This desire was nurtured by her aunt and grandmother, who were both excellent storytellers. Her most famous book, "Caddie Woodlawn" (1935), is based on a story she heard often as she was growing up. It is the story of the Wisconsin childhood of her grandmother Caddie.

After publishing her first book in 1934, Brink wrote more than thirty fiction and nonfiction books for children and adults, as well as several plays. She received the Newberry Award in 1936 and the Lewis Carroll Shelf Award in 1959 for "Caddie Woodlawn." Brink won the Friends of American Writers Award in 1956 for "The Headland" and the Irvin Kerlan Award in 1978 for "Four Girls on a Homestead." In 1965 Brink was awarded an Honorary Doctorate of Literature from the University of Idaho. She died August 15, 1981.

M/A 1994.09.01

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Brock, Emma L.

Emma Lillian Brock was born on June 11, 1886 in Fort Shaw, Montana. She graduated from the University of Minnesota with a bachelor's degree in 1908. Because of her interest in art, she also studied at the Minneapolis School of Art from 1910-1914 and the Art Students League in New York from 1917-1928. While studying art, she also worked as a librarian in the art department and children's rooms. 

In 1929, Ms. Brock wrote and illustrated her first book titled Runaway Sardine. During her lifetime she wrote 36 books, almost all of which were published by Knopf. She liked to travel overseas, particulary to England and France, where many of her stories took place. Her book titled Here Comes Kristie (1942) was made into an NBC television special. Ms. Brock died on August 17, 1974.

M/A 1998.46.01

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Brooks, Gladys

Brooks was mayoral candidate in 1973; three-term Minneapolis City Council member from 1967 to 1973; president of Brooks/Ridder and Associates, a public-affairs consulting firm, and a founding member of the Minnesota Center for Women in Government. She was the first chair of the University of Minnesota's Women's Athletic Advisory Board, the first woman president of the Minnesota Council of Churches and a member of the Metropolitan Council.

Brooks served on Gov. Perpich's council on the World Trade Center and as a Hamline University trustee. The Metropolitan Council honored her in 1984 as the first Regional Citizen of the Year. She was a founder of what became the GOP Feminist Caucus. She was the first to chair the Patty Berg Women's Athletic Scholarship Fund at the University of Minnesota. She was recipient of the AAUW Women of Distinction award, from the YWCA Woman of Year and the Community Leadership awards, from the Minneapolis Council of Churches the Christian Service award, and from the Minnesota State Bar Association the Service to Freedom award. She is listed in the 1988 Who’s Who of the Midwest.

M/A 2005.09.01-02

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Brown Study Club

Women's study club was organized and federated in 1911. Their goal was to study questions of interest and miscellaneous topics. Organized by a group of women from Brown County who had moved to Minneapolis. The charter members came from Sleepy Eye, New Ulm and Springfield. Mrs. K.E. Mo was the first president.

Membership was limited to 25 and meetings were conducted at the homes of members. Topics studied include United States, Alaska government and civic problems, book reviews and current events.

M/A 2000.102.01

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Buchanan Bible Study Club

Organized March 5, 1920 by Isabella Reid Buchanan, also known as Mrs. John C. Buchanan. Buchanan was a pioneer Minnesota club woman and Bible teacher. It was her idea that women might be interested in forming a club that would have as its sole purpose Bible study. The object of the club was "to promote the systematic study of the Bible and the training of Bible teachers. It shall be strictly non-sectarian and no doctrinal discussion shall be allowed. The Bible shall be presented in systematic courses with a study of the historical and geographical setting of each book, with special emphasis on its contents and inspirational literature." The club was affiliated with the Federated Woman's Club. The club sponsored the religious weekday classes for the children in the city of Minneapolis. In the 1960s through the Community Improvement Program, it sponsored classes at Grant Elementary School and was involved with the Community Covenant Church.

M/A 2000.103.01-16

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Business and Professional Men's Association

This organization also called itself “The Cheese Club” and materials are from 1923-1938. The purpose of the club was to extend aid and to co-operate with political movements whose aim was the improvement of the living and working conditions among the masses of the people, embracing all producers, whether manual or brain workers; to promote greater efficiency and devotion to the public interest in all branches of the government service; to assist in inducing citizens of dependable character and special fitness to become candidates for important public office; to provide ways and means of disseminating correct information that such candidates and political groups will receive publicity; to present the point of view of the liberal-minded business and professional man and to co-operate with the farmer-labor groups in their political activities.

M/A 2003.03.01

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Business and Professional Women's Club of Minneapolis

Minneapolis Business and Professional Women's Club was organized June 16, 1919 as Business Women's Club of Minneapolis. The organization dinner was held at Dayton's Tea Room. Six hundred women were at the dinner, augmented by two hundred more at the business meeting following the dinner. On April 7, 1941, the name of the club was changed to Business and Professional Women's Club of Minneapolis, Inc. The purpose of the club was "to strengthen friendly and business relations of its members." Membership was "open to women who are actively engaged or employed in business or a profession. The membership in this club shall be classified as founder, charter, active, special, and honorary." Gratia Alta Countryman, chief librarian of Minneapolis, was the club's first president. The first club magazine, Junior Partner came out on December 15, 1920. On February 14, 1921, the name of the periodical was changed to Minneapolis Business Woman.

M/A 2000.04.01-07

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Business Forum

The Business Forum traces its origins to 1872 when a group of young office workers started meeting informally over lunch at the old Nicollet Hotel. The original gatherings had no real structure, met irregularly and kept no records. The group continued meeting, however, and eventually adopted a formal structure under the name "The Minneapolis Association of Accountants and Bookkeepers." The association was not formally incorporated, however, until 1912, when it adopted the name "Minneapolis Association of Office Men" to broaden its appeal to all male office workers. 

The content of the group's meetings also changed, and began to include guest speakers and debates of current topics among members. In recognition of this development, the organization changed its name again in 1922 to "the Business Forum." Over the years, the Business Forum has featured hundreds of speakers including local and national business leaders, politicians, educators, government officials, and representative of foreign governments.

In addition to its role as a social and intellectual outlet for city businessmen, the Business Forum has also been a service organization, promoting and funding a wide variety of social and educational causes. Among them, persuading the State Legislature to establish the CPA degree in 1904, promoting the establishment of the University of Minnesota's Business School, encouraging the transformation of the Parade Grounds into a recreational area in the 1920s, promoting the sale of bonds during the two World Wars, and contributing thousands of dollars to charitable organizations, such as the Parent & Teachers Association and the Louise Whitbeck Fraser School (now Fraser).

M/A 2012.12.01-07

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Business Trade Cards

Trade cards offered a more intimate method for businesses to advertise their services. Cards could be tucked into products, distributed in the store, or delivered by traveling salesmen. The fronts featured colorful and ornate designs, while the backs often advertised a specific product sold by the company. 

Advances in chromolithography in the 1870s and 1880s allowed for very colorful cards, making it one of the most widespread advertising formats. Printers offered numerous stock designs, many of which left a blank area for companies to imprint or stamp their name and address. Because of this, different companies might use the same card to advertise different products. Businesses with larger advertising budgets were able to order custom designs.

The trade cards in this collection feature Minneapolis businesses and individuals.

Source: Harvard University Baker Library, The Art of American Advertising: Trade Cards. http://www.library.hbs.edu/hc/artadv/trade-cards.html

M/A 2014.12.01-03

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Buzza Company

George Buzza founded the Buzza Company in 1907. The company started out by selling college advertising posters and posters for retail clothing stores. When the market for these disappeared, he decided to manufacture greeting cards. After a slow start the company turned a corner in 1917 when sales hit $75,000. By 1927 sales reached $2.5 million. In 1928 it merged with the Charles S. Clark Company of New York City. In 1929 Buzza sold his interest in the company and retired to California. The Buzza Company continued in business until 1942 when its stockholders decided to liquidate it because of large business losses.

M/A 2000.152.01

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Caesar's Bar, Cedar-Riverside Neighborhood, Compiled by Muriel Lee

Muriel and David Lee moved into the Cedar-Riverside neighborhood in 1960. In 1962 the couple bought the buildings at 316, 320, and 324 Cedar Avenue. At the time, two of the buildings housed a bar, whose rent helped cover the deed payments. When the bar closed a year or so later, the Lees decided to re-open the bar in order to continue a source of income. Caesar's Bar opened in 1965. 

By the early 1970s, Cedar Avenue was undergoing some drastic changes. Cedar Riverside Plaza, an apartment complex designed by Ralph Rapson, opened in 1973. And the University of Minnesota was expanding to the West Bank. Caesar's Bar was well-known and liked. The Lees rented apartments above Caesar's to students and also maintained a garden at 3rd St. and Cedar Ave. David Lee became ill and the couple closed the bar on March 28, 1986. The buildings were sold several months later.

David died of cancer in March, 1990. Muriel Lee no longer lives in the Cedar-Riverside neighborhood. She is a local author and editor and is actively involved with pet boarding and the Minneapolis Kennel Club.

M/A 2015.05.01

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Camden Area Community Concerns

This collection reflects Camden neighborhood's activities during the 1970s. The years 1977 and 1978 are most closely documented. The Camden Area Community Concerns Council (CACCC) was an independent community organization which emphasized community input. It was open to all residents and committed to dealing with community problems. The CACCC sought to further community development, educate residents on civic matters, engage in job development for underemployed and unemployed youths, improve the economic condition of senior citizens. The group sponsored and supported such projects as the creation of a community center, neighborhood beautification, developing a volunteer network to provide support services to senior citizens, and the curtailing of destructive real estate sales practices.

M/A 2000.173.01

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Carle, Frank Austin

Frank Austin Carle was born in Spencerport, NY, on July 21, 1851. He studied at the Universities of Wisconsin and Michigan, earning a BA in 1874. He started his journalistic career in Indianapolis in 1876, later working for papers in Portland, St. Paul and New York. He moved to Minneapolis in 1901, working as an editorial writer for the Minneapolis Tribune, then later the Minneapolis Journal. He retired from active newspaper work in 1916. He outlived his wife and daughter, passing away on January 21, 1930.

M/A 2013.05.01

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Cassiopeia Club

Organized on October 8, 1897 under the leadership of Agnes Fryberger. The membership consisted of South Minneapolis women in the Portland Avenue-36th Street area. The club was named after the constellation Cassiopeia. It was a general study club with a variety of study courses.

M/A 2000.104.01

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Cedar Lake Park Association

Save Cedar Lake Park (SCLP) was a citizens group formed in 1989 with the vision of establishing a rustic nature park on the north and northeast shores of Cedar Lake and along the railroad right-of-way from Cedar Lake to Highway 100. Its official name was Cedar Lake Park Preservation and Development Association, Inc. The goals of SCLP were to ensure that the land for sale by Burlington Northern was protected from development other than as parkland, to raise at least one-third of the 1.7 million dollar purchase price, preserve the land for a nature park by negotiating with an intermediary agency to acquire the land and hold it until the purchase can be funded through public and private sources; develop a foot and bike trail corridor that connects the Chain of Lakes and the Mississippi Riverfront Park, and extend the trail corridor west. 

In 1989 community members living near Cedar Lake learned that Burlington Railroad intended to sell the land bordering the north shore of Cedar Lake, which had once been used as a railroad switching yard. In March 1989 a neighborhood meeting was held to discuss preserving the land. This meeting led to the formation of SCLP in April 1989. By 1991, SCLP had more than 500 members. Laurie Lundy was the coordinator of the group. SCLP approached the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board (MPRB) with their vision for preservation of the land. The MPRB commissioned Wirth Design to develop a design study of using the land as a nature park. In November 1989 the Metropolitan Council’s Open Space Commission approved the design study and added Cedar Lake to its Chain of Lakes Regional Park Plan.

After the acquisition of the land, the Cedar Lake Park Association took the place of Save Cedar Lake Park. The Cedar Lake Park Association was active in developing the urban park and trail on the purchased land. On September 9, 1995 Cedar Lake Trail was dedicated. In 2000 the group renamed itself the Cedar Lake Park Association (CLPA) and refocused their efforts to further extending the Cedar Lake Regional Trail through Downtown Minneapolis to the Mississippi River. During the 2000s and 2010s the group remained an active force for promoting the development of trails and parkland in the Cedar Lake area.

M/A 2013.09.01-17

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Central Neighborhood Improvement Association (CNIA)

The Central Neighborhood Improvement Association (CNIA) was established in 1980 by residents who had a desire to work together to reduce crime in the area. They organized to become the non-profit 501(c)3 that represented the neighborhood. Initially, the organization raised funds and received grant money to support any work they wanted to do, but when the Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NRP) began providing funding to neighborhood organizations, CNIA took on a dramatically different role. 

While CNIA had many successes, it was particularly skillful in drawing in funding and establishing working partnerships with foundations, government agencies, and other non-profits. The organization had an excellent working relationship with the two major funders for neighborhood development in Minneapolis: the McKnight Foundation and the James Ford Bell Foundation.

In 2000, the CNIA was taken over in a well-organized effort by the self-titled “Blue Crew” at CNIA’s Annual Meeting in May 2000. The new organization’s failure to repay a James Ford Bell grant, and its inability to secure new NRP funds led to its eventual demise. The Central Area Neighborhood Development Organization (CANDO) rose out of the Weed and Seed program to take its place. CANDO is recognized by the city as the official registered 501(c)3 non-profit representing the Central neighborhood.

The Central Community represents a geographically defined neighborhood which includes Lake Street to the North, 38th Street to the South, Chicago Avenue to the East and Second Avenue to the West. These boundaries fit those approved by the City Council.

M/A 2013.03.01-07

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Chapman, Louise

Louise Chapman was an assistant in the Music Department at the Minneapolis Public Library. In 1934, she took a leave of absence from her position and started researching the history of music in Minnesota, specifically Minneapolis. This research led to the six part series, "The First Fifty Years of Music in Minneapolis," published in the Minneapolis Tribune in 1935. She returned to her position at the library shortly after the articles were published, and also remained an active writer and speaker.

M/A 2010.04.01-02

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Charlie's Café Exceptionale

Charlie’s Café Exceptionale opened in December of 1933 at 716 4th Ave. S. in Minneapolis, Minnesota. It was started by Charles Herlin and Charles Saunders who were the head bartender and waiter respectively. Charles Saunders gained sole ownership of the café upon the death of Charles Herlin in 1933.

Saunders proved to be a skilled restauranteur, and his café began to become a fixture of the Minneapolis social scene. It was written about by several columnists in Minneapolis papers gaining the restaurant even more prestige. It was also chosen to host the Les Amis D’ Escoffier annual dinner in 1956. This was an annual event for people involved in the culinary profession, and was considered to be an important event.

In 1964 Charles Saunders died of a heart attack, and ownership of the café passed to Louise H. Saunders. Although she was trained as a lawyer, and had no experience as a restauranteur, she chose to continue operating the Cafe. Under her leadership the Café continued to do excellent business, and they were the recipients of several awards. The business became nationally known and attracted several celebrities such as Bob Hope and President Nixon.

Louise Saunders continued to operate the cafe from the mid 1960's until the 1980s. In July of 1982 Charlie’s Cafe Exceptionale ceased operation.

M/A 2000.185.01-18

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Cheney, Mary Moulton

Mary Moulton Cheney was a prolific and influential Minneapolis artist and educator in the early part of the 20th century. She was born in 1871, daughter of Isaac Cheney, head millwright for the Washburn, Crosby Milling Company in Minneapolis. She graduated from the College of Science, Literature, and Arts at the University of Minnesota and the design department at the Boston Museum School of Art. She also studied painting under George Elmer Browne in Provincetown, Massachusetts and took a special course in design under Dr. Denman Ross. Thus Cheney's design work was well-rounded. She was thoroughly experienced in leather work and acquired skills in metal work, producing jewelry in copper and silver. She was most well-known for her printing skills.

Cheney educated many others on art in turn, organizing the first class in design at the Minneapolis School of Fine Arts in 1897, eventually becoming the principal of the design department, then Dean of Women, and finally Director of the school from 1917 to 1925. This school would become the Minneapolis College of Art and Design (MCAD). She also taught at Camp Danworthy during the summer, leading the Mary Moulton Cheney Art Colony for young women.

Cheney was also involved in community organizations including The Woman’s Club and the Minneapolis Business Women’s Club, serving as president for the later in from 1922 to 1924.

Cheney also taught Design Arts at the Vocational High School in Minneapolis from 1928 to 1942. After retiring, she moved to Bend, OR and devoted herself to painting in oil. She died in 1957 at the age of 86.

M/A 1998.40.01-08

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Children's Theater

The Children's Theater Company started out as The Moppet Players in 1961 as a professional theater troupe for young audiences. They changed their name to the Children's Theater Company in 1965 when they moved to a new stage, the Minneapolis Institute of Arts lecture hall. In 1969 the Children's Theater Company started a theater school for students, an accredited grade school and high school where kids would spend half of the day studying academic work and the other half studying theater. In 1974, along with the renovation of the MIA, the Children's Theater Company space got a facelift with a $4.5 million dollar upgrade. 

The Company ended its affiliation with the Institute of Arts and the Society of Fine Arts in 1975 in order to run itself. In 1984 the company ended its theater school. THRESHOLD, a new play laboratory, was started in 1998 which was designed to enlist emerging artists to write premiere plays for the Company to debut. This program, along with another neighborhood program, Neighborhood Bridges, still continues today. The Company debuts new premiere plays each year.

The new Children's Theater building, designed by Michael Graves in 2001, enhanced the Theater's offerings allowing the Company to host six mainstage productions per year as well as four additional shows on the smaller, more intimate Cargill Stage. Today, Children's Theater is recognized as North America's flagship theater for young people and families as well as a major cultural and artistic resource in Minnesota.

M/A 2012.16.01

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Citizens League of Minneapolis and Hennepin County

Founded in 1952. The Citizens League is an independent, nonpartisan educational organization in the Twin Cities area with over 3000 members, specializing in questions of government planning, finance and organization. Membership is open to the public. Their mission is eight-fold. 1) Study committees which publish full reports on various topics. 2) Publish Public Life 3) and a Public Affairs Directory. 4) Work further with government or non-government agencies. 5) Hold community leadership breakfasts. 6) Publish Citizen League News. 7) Hold question-and-answer luncheons, and 8) Provide information assistance.

M/A 2000.106.01

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City Planning Department

The Minneapolis City Planning Department was established in 1921. Staff included a City Planning Engineer, assistants, draftsmen, architects, and surveyors, all housed Minneapolis' Municipal Building. In 1918, the City Planning Act for Minnesota and the City Planning Commission were established, but before that date there was no concerted approach to city planning in Minneapolis.

Throughout its existence, the City Planning Department worked alongside the Planning Commission, preparing comprehensive, long-range plans and studies, conducting research to identify priorities for community improvements, and coordinating social and physical improvement programs both inside and outside city government. Unlike the Planning Commission, which consisted of individuals appointed by the Mayor and others serving on the City Council, School Board, Park Board, and County Board, individuals in the City Planning Department were staff of the City of Minneapolis.

In 1958, the Planning Department hired Lawrence Irvin, who served as the Department's Director for over 20 years. Throughout the 1960s, the Department was involved in numerous neighborhood urban renewal and downtown planning projects. The Planning Department was particularly effective in obtaining federal grant money to execute the City's improvement projects. However, by the mid-1970s, federal funding models had shifted and neighborhood groups became more directly involved in planning programs, diminishing the need for such extensive coordination with the City Planning Department. In 2003, the Planning Department, along with three other City agencies - the Empowerment Zone, Minneapolis Community Development Agency, and Minneapolis Employment and Training Program, were combined to form the Department of Community Planning and Economic Development (CPED).

M/A 2016.01.01-04

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Clio Club

Organized in 1895, federated in 1896. The object of this women's club was to meet regularly for the study of ancient and modern history.

M/A 2000.107.01

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Columbian Club

Women's club was organized on October 13, 1893 by Eliza Berryhill. The original object of the club was to study the world's fair, the Columbian Exposition in Chicago, hence the name of the club. Art, architecture, and exhibits in general were studied. History, travel, drama, and other subjects were added later.

M/A 2000.108.01

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Community Planning and Economic Development, Minneapolis Department of (CPED)

M/A 2014.04.01-60

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Concordia Society of the Swedish Hospital

A benevolent women’s society organized October 17, 1901, and incorporated June 10, 1918. The Concordia Society was primarily dedicated to providing free beds, as well as a variety of other services to persons in need of medical care, at the Swedish Hospital.

M/A 2000.168.01

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Cosmopolitan Study Club

A Minneapolis, Minnesota women’s study club organized in 1901. Topics for study were issued annually and meetings to discuss this study were held at the houses of active members. The club's motto was "Do Something," the club flower was the pansy, and the club colors were blue and white.

M/A 2000.109.01

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Coterie

The Coterie lays claims to greater age than of any other club in Minneapolis except the Tuesday Club. Coterie’s inception dates from the fall of 1880.

During the club’s history, literature had been the one unvarying pursuit, and every suggestion that the club depart from this study even for a time was met with disfavor from the membership. The 43 years devoted to literature had proved to many a liberal education. In 1927 there were still in the club membership many who were charter members.

The Coterie joined the Woman’s Council in April, 1892, and a few days later the General Federation of Women’s Clubs, joining the states federation in 1895.

M/A 2000.111.01

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Countryman, Gratia Alta

Gratia Alta Countryman was born November 29, 1866, in Hastings, Minnesota, the daughter of pioneer parents Levi and Alta Chamberlain Countryman. She received her baccalaureate degree from the University of Minnesota in 1889, intending to become a teacher but Herbert Putnam encouraged her to apply for a position at the Minneapolis Public Library which was to soon open under his direction. She began as a cataloguer on October 1, 1889, helping to classify 30,000 volumes before the library began circulation, starting a lifelong career with the Minneapolis Public Library. After one year, she was promoted to head of the catalog department, and two years later, in 1892, she was appointed assistant librarian to James K. Hosmer who had then succeeded Putnam. In 1904 she succeeded Hosmer as chief librarian, becoming the nation’s first female head librarian. Countryman was chief librarian for over thirty-two years until 1936 when she was required to retire at the age of seventy. She was then made librarian emeritus. 

Upon Miss Countryman’s promotion to chief librarian she immediately began to make changes, expanding the Library’s services to reach more and more people. In the thirty-two years she directed the Library, service expanded into all areas of the city including elementary and junior high schools, hospitals, engine houses, welfare centers, and factories. By the time of Miss Countryman’s retirement, the book collection had increased to 662,842 volumes and the circulation, which was 519,000 in 1904, had increased to 3,293,484 in 1936. The number of registered borrowers had increased from 40,500 in 1904 to 181,582 in 1936. Of the 11 branch library buildings in Minneapolis, 9 were built during her administration. Miss Countryman was instrumental in local, state, and national library work, and was elected President of the American Library Association from 1933-34 becoming the sixth woman to hold that distinction in the association’s hitherto sixty year history. From 1938 until 1941, Miss Countryman was the head of the newspaper indexing project for the Works Progress Administration at the Minneapolis Public Library.

Gratia Countryman died in Duluth, Minnesota, on July 26, 1953.

M/A 1997.01.01-10

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Cram, Marcella

Marcella A. Cram was the daughter of Leo and Yetta Cram of Minneapolis. Marcella attended North High School in the late 1950s and the University of Minnesota in the early 1960s. During these years she was active in the Beth El Synagogue, Minneapolis Habonim, and the United Synagogue Youth Organization.

M/A 1998.65.01-02

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Cricket Theatre

The Cricket Theatre started in 1968 in a building on Hennepin Ave and 28th street. With the success of, "House of Leather", their first big hit, the theater decided to travel the show reaching local Twin Cities residents and moving on to New York where it flopped and the company promptly disbanded. After a brief break, the theater started up again in 1971, relocating to a movie theater in Northeast Minneapolis, now the Ritz Theatre. The Cricket got into dispute with their landlord who was overcharging them for rent and they won the case, receiving one year of free rent at that location. 

The theater company moved into the Hennepin Center for the Arts in 1978 and between then and the late 1980s, the theater had three different artistic directors: William Semens, Lou Salerni, and William Partlan. The company closed yet again for a period in the 1980s due to lack of funding.

The Cricket Theatre, known for producing shows from emerging artists, closed in 1996 for financial reasons, which left the company $120,000 in debt. Their last show, "Triple Espresso", became the biggest hit in the theater's 26-year history and continued to be performed locally and internationally, following The Cricket's closure, for the next seventeen years.

M/A 2012.18.01-02

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Cross, Marion Eleanor

Marion Eleanor Cross was born on September 17, 1903, in Minneapolis, Minnesota. She received a bachelor's degree in history and English from Smith College (Northampton, Mass.) and master's degrees in French and Italian from the University of Minnesota.

Cross began her writing career by translating Father Louis Hennepin's "Description of Louisiana Newly Discovered to the Southwest of New France by Order of His Majesty" (1680) from the original French. She was encouraged in this endeavor by the Minnesota Historical Society's Theodore Blegen and Grace Lee Nute, making hers the first such translation done in the twentieth century. She subsequently wrote several histories of prominent Minneapolis businesses, including the Farmers and Mechanics Building, the Archer Daniels Midland Company, and the M.F. Patterson Dental Supply Company. Cross, ninety-four years old, died on November 29, 1997, from heart failure.

M/A 1994.13.01

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Current Events and Literary Society

The Current Events and Literary Society was organized in Minneapolis, Minnesota in May of 1892. It joined the General Federation of Women’s Clubs that same year, and later became a member of the Minnesota Federation of Women’s Clubs. The Society was principally assembled for the study of current events of more than ordinary interest and the discussion of topics in current literature.

M/A 2000.112.01

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Daughters of the American Colonists Minnesota Society

Daughters of the American Colonists (DAC) Minnesota Society was organized September 27, 1922, and incorporated June 24, 1924. The objective of the Society was to "be patriotic, historical, and educational; to make research as to the history and deeds of the American colonists, and to record and publish the same; to commemorate deeds of Colonial interest; to inculcate and foster love of America and its institutions by all residents, to obey its law and venerate its flag, the emblem of its power and civic righteousness."

M/A 2000.113.01-08

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Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR)

The Daughters of the American Revolution (DAR) is a nationwide women's service organization established in 1890 in Washington D.C. The St. Paul Chapter, organized in 1891, was the first Minnesota chapter of the Daughters of the American Revolution. At the state, national, and local levels, the DAR has historically been dedicated to promoting education, patriotism, historic preservation, and environmental conservation. In order to join the DAR, members are required to provide documentation showing that they are direct descendants of a man or woman who served the cause for American independence. From the 1890s through the 1970s, the DAR in Minnesota was comprised of many local chapters and a statewide chapter known as the Daughters of the American Revolution of Minnesota and later as the Minnesota Society of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Local and statewide chapters of the DAR still operate in Minnesota, but since the 1980s the organization's membership has dwindled.

M/A 2000.114.01-28

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Dayton-Winchell Family

Both the Daytons and the Winchells are very old families whose history can be traced not only to Minnesota, but to the whole of the United States. The families were united by marriage, and consisted of doctors, scientists, and businessmen. From these families a number of influential personalities emerged which had lasting effects on the state of Minnesota.

M/A 1994.14

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Decker, Edward

Edward Spaulding Decker was born in Minneapolis on September 29, 1893. His father, Edward W. Decker, was the president of the Northwest National Bank in Minneapolis from 1912 to 1934 and this his family figured prominently in the Minneapolis social and business world. Decker graduated from Central High School in Minneapolis and later went on to attend Princeton University, earning a Bachelor of Letters degree in 1916. 

In 1924 or 1925 he married Lucretia Yale Jarvis. They resided in Minneapolis and went on to have two sons (Edward Jr. and William) and two daughters (Lucretia and Mary).

He spent the majority of his life working for the Russell-Miller Milling Co. When he retired from the company in 1958, he had attained the position of vice president.

Decker died in 1962.

M/A 1998.57.01

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Delphian Past President's Club

Women's club organized in 1932. It was affiliated with the Minnesota State Federation of Women's Clubs, Minnesota Fifth District Federation of Women's Clubs and the Minneapolis Federation of Delphians. Club motto, “Friendly co-operation makes possible many things not attainable through individual effort.”

M/A 2000.119.01

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Department of Public Welfare, Food Stamp Division

The food stamp program was to officially begin in Minneapolis on November 29, 1939. This scrapbook documents the years of 1939-1945. It includes an excellent collection of photographs of the Minneapolis Food Stamp Division's offices and staff, and the men and women who came to receive the stamps. It has a floor plan diagram of the offices, photo of a sign stating what foods were available, and later photos of the Millionth Dollar Food Stamp issued (April 20, 1940). Other materials include press releases, articles about the food stamps (which were blue stamps) and cotton stamps (brown and green stamps), articles from various periodicals, reports, regulations and conditions governing the issuance of a food order stamp, reports from the food industry, radio programs from WCCO, as well as articles concerning various other cities food stamp programs. The cities included Rochester, N.Y., Dayton, Ohio, Des Moines, Iowa, Seattle, Washington, and Pottawatomie County, Oklahoma.

M/A 2000.172.01

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Disco Club

Women's club organized in 1894. Course of study ranged from history and travel to literature and the arts.

M/A 2000.120.01

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Donovan, Dayne

Dayne Donovan was born to Daniel and Maud Laura (Williams) Donovan on July 19, 1892, in Auburn, Indiana. The family eventually relocated to Minneapolis, Minnesota, where Dayne attended Garfield Junior High and Minneapolis Central High, graduating in 1911. He enrolled at the University of Minnesota but ceased his studies in June 1913. Donovan attended classes at Minneapolis's William H. Dunwoody Industrial Institute. He was inducted into the Signal Corps (May 4, 1918) and was assigned to Company B, 6th Field Signal Battalion, Sixth Division, U.S. Army (June 12, 1918). He left for France on July 7, 1918. He died November 26, 1967, in Hennepin County, Minnesota.

M/A 1994.15.01

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Dunwoody, William H.

William H. Dunwoody, banker and flour manufacturer, was born in Chester Co., Pa. in 1841. He was educated in Philadelphia and began an active career by working in a grain and flour store of his uncle's in Philadelphia in 1859. He entered the same business a few years later as a member of the firm of Dunwoody & Robertson. He and his wife, Kate Dunwoody, came to Minneapolis in September 1869 as a buyer of flour for Eastern investing firms. Later he became a member of the firm of Tiffany, Dunwoody & Co., operating Artic Flour Mills and also of H. Darrow & Co., operating Union Flour Mill in 1871. He organized the Millers' Association and became its manager and general agent. He was the first to introduce a new process for milling wheat and also the first to engage in exportation of Minneapolis flour direct to Europe, at the solicitation of Governor Washburn in November 1877. He was one of the organizers and members of firm of Washburn, Crosby & Co., operating the Washburn Mills, commencing business February, 1879. The firm later introduced the roller process of making flour into its plants. Dunwoody was president of Northwestern National Bank, St. Anthony & Dakota Elevator Co., and the Barnum Grain Co., vice president of St. Anthony Elevator Co., the Washburn Crosby Co., and director of Minneapolis Trust Co. William H. Dunwoody died February 8, 1914.

M/A 1994.30.01

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Early Minneapolis Business Firms Photograph Albums

This collection consists of two albums of photographs of Minneapolis business firms taken circa 1912. Album 1 contains 48 photographs and Album 2 contains 35 photographs. Both albums have been digitized and are available in Minnesota Reflections: (Album 1) http://reflections.mndigital.org/cdm/ref/collection/mpls/id/487; (Album 2) http://reflections.mndigital.org/cdm/ref/collection/mpls/id/434.

M/A 2009.01.01-02

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East Calhoun Community Organization (ECCO) News

The "ECCO" was first published in 1973 as the newspaper for the East Calhoun neighborhood, located between by Lake St. and 36th St. and between Hennepin Avenue and East Calhoun Parkway. "ECCO" (East Calhoun Community Organization) was preceded by the ECHO (East Calhoun Homeowners Association) newsletter. 

As the scope of the paper began to include the neighboring CARAG (Calhoun Area Residents Action Group), in 1981 the newspaper was renamed "East Calhoun News" to diminish the geographical restriction that some board members felt the previous name implied.

The newspaper was a non-profit, independent newspaper run by the volunteer ECCO News Advisory Board. It was published monthly and sold advertisement space to local businesses. The paper was distributed from the east shore of Lake Calhoun to Lyndale Ave. between Lake St. and 36th St. "East Calhoun News" was published until at least December of 1995.

The ECCO Board also served to welcome new residents as they moved to the neighborhood, as well as to organize events including a neighborhood-wide yard sale and an alley clean-up day.

M/A 2000.123.01-10

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Elective Study Club

Developed from a "Chataqua Circle" in the early 1890s by a group of young men and women. The circle disbanded in 1892 and the women formed the Afternoon Literary Club. The official date of organization was 1893. In November 1896 the name was changed to the Elective Club with the word "Study" added a few years later. Programs of study covered a variety of topics. The club assisted in many civic and war projects. Its members have contributed much to the philanthropic, civic, and social life of the community.

M/A 2000.124.01-05

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Elliot Park Neighborhood, Inc.

Elliot Park is one of the oldest neighborhood communities in Minneapolis. It began around the time the city was founded in 1856. Its proximity to the industries that were built up around St. Anthony Falls made it popular for Swedish immigrants who were drawn to this area. The 1870's and 1880's saw important developments in the neighborhood. Cottage hospital opened on 6th Street and this established Elliot Park as one of the leading medical neighborhoods in the city. An early public school, Madison school was also established in the neighborhood. In 1883 the neighborhood gained its most prominent landmark when Dr. Joseph Elliot, an area physician, donated his farmland to the city which became Elliot Park. The park became an amenity that drew residents and it became a fashionable area to live in. 

After 1920, population growth began to slow, and decline set in during the Depression of the 1930s. The rapid expansion of the Twin Cities suburban areas in the 1950's and 1960's came at the expense of inner-city neighborhoods and also meant that new roadways had to be built to transport people efficiently throughout the area. Residential sectors at the eastern and southern edges of Elliot Park were gutted for freeways 94 and 35W. Freeway construction in the 1960's also displaced numerous area businesses, substantially changing the neighborhood's character. Between 1950 and 1970 the population of Elliot Park had dropped by 54% and the neighborhood was home to an increasingly transient population. By the 1970's Elliot Park had become one of the poorest neighborhoods in the city, beset with economic and social problems as 53% of the community lived below the poverty line.

Neighborhood residents organized to address these problems and turn their neighborhood around. In 1976, Elliot Park residents established Elliot Park Neighborhood, Inc. (EPNI) to improve the quality of life in their neighborhood. Their mission was to conserve the existing housing stock and participate in any decision-making that would substantially affect the neighborhood's future. They sought to promote neighborhood revitalization and the delivery of needed services for residents of every age and economic situation.

M/A 2012.02.01-02

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Engineer's Club of Minneapolis

The Engineers’ Club of Minneapolis (ECM) held their first meeting on May 4, 1883 at the “Board of Trade Room” in the old City Hall. Invited were all 30 engineers of Minneapolis whose addresses could be found. At the June meeting By-Laws were adopted and Andrew Rinker was elected President, William De La Barre, Vice President, William A. Pike, Secretary and George O. Foss, Librarian.

The club, initially called the Engineers Club of Minnesota, was formed for the purpose of “the professional improvement of its members, the encouragement of social intercourse among engineers and men of practical science, and the advancement of Engineering.” Membership was open to civil, mechanical, geological and mining engineers and other persons interested in the advancement of engineering, who were at least 21 years old.

In 1888 a new constitution was adopted and the club became the Minneapolis Society of Civil Engineers. In 1890 the club was again reorganized as the Engineers Club of Minneapolis, Minnesota. Between 1900 and 1902 membership had grown to 62. Early activities of the club included excursions to the Kettle River Sandstone Company’s quarry and the clay industries in Red Wing.

In 1953-54, membership was at 1,018. Mayor Donald M. Fraser proclaimed the week of May 8 to May 14, 1983 as “The Engineers’ Club of Minneapolis Week” in honor of the club’s 100th anniversary. The Engineers’ Foundation of Minneapolis, Inc. was established in 1983 to provide scholarships to students in the engineering profession.

M/A 2006.01.01-03

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Environmental Library of Minnesota

The need for a library focusing on local environmental issues became apparent to 3 local minnesota environmental groups in early 1970. Starting with virtually nothing, a group of volunteers, some affiliated with the 3 groups, pulled together materials donated by MCEI, MECCA, and other environmental groups as wells as from individuals to establish an initial collection. Financial contributions from environmental groups, individuals and local industries helped get the library going. The Minneapolis Public Library provided a space in the basement of the Southeast Branch. Old furniture including shelving was available on loan to the library from the University of Minnesota Inventory warehouse. 

ELM opened to the public in February, 1970. From 1970 to 1975 ELM was governed, organized, maintained and staffed almost exclusively by volunteers. ELM received two grants from the U.S. Office of Enivronmental Education. One to purchase library materials; the other to hire two part-time staff for approximately one year to coordinate activities and volunteers. An extensive collection including books, periodicals, government publication, newspaper clippings and vertical file materials was developed and used by many students and citizens during extensive service hours.

In April of 1972 the State funded Environmental Conservation Library (ECOL) opened in the downtown Minneapolis Public Library. In 1974, ELM was requried to drastically cut its service hours to conform to those of the Southeast Branch Library in response to the energy crisis. Many evening and weekend hours were cut eliminating many hours when volunteers and users could conveniently work at ELM. Use of ELM diminished and sustaining a volunteer staff became difficult. ELM disbanded by the end of June 1975.

M/A 2014.08.01-03

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Ex Tempore Club

The Ex Tempore women's club was organized December 9, 1926. The purpose of the club was to practice extemporaneous speaking and pursue general study. The club motto was, “We learn by speaking.”

M/A 2000.125.01

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Federal Reserve Bank Site Selection

Congress established the Federal Reserve in 1913. The Federal Reserve Bank of Minneapolis was at first a tenant in a leased space. In 1919 Congress approved the construction of new head office buildings for each of the 12 Federal Reserve districts. The Ninth District Federal Reserve purchased a tract of land at Fifth Street and Marquette Avenue in downtown Minneapolis and selected architect Cass Gilbert, well known for his design of the Minnesota Capitol and St. Paul Seminary in St. Paul. Minneapolis Federal Reserve employees moved into the four-story neoclassical building in 1925. 

Banking activity increased during and after World War II, requiring the Fed to lease temporary quarters while plans were made expand its headquarters. An eight-floor addition atop the building was constructed from 1955 to 1957. The modern upper stories with stark, vertical lines stood in contrast to the neoclassical base. Later after the building was sold to National Bank the base was modernized to match the skyscraper addtion. The first building still exists as 510 Marquette at the corner of Marquette Avenue and 5th Street South in Minneapolis, next to the Nicollet Mall station of the Hiawatha light rail line.

The first building served as Ninth District headquarters until 1973, when the bank moved to its second location at 250 Marquette Avenue. The new building at 250 Marquette Avenue, now known as Marquette Plaza was beset by design problems and asbestos contamination. The Federal Reserve chose to sell it and build a new building. In the early 1990s a search began for a new building site to accomodate more staff and technology. Historical Research Inc. helped research various sites in Minneapolis and created a significant amount of research materials. The Great Northern Depot was built in and served Minneapolis until March 1st, 1978 when the last passengers left the depot. It was razed by early Fall 1978. The former site of the Great Northern Depot on the Minneapolis riverfront was finally chosen as the new site for the bank and construction began in Winter of 1994. The new Federal Reserve Bank building was occupied in August of 1997.

M/A 2000.174.01-13

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Filomenian Club

Women's club was organized in 1915. Study programs varied, with programs showing lectures by various speakers and a broad course of study.

M/A 2000.126.01

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Flanagan, Barbara

Barbara Flanagan was a Minneapolis newspaper columnist for the Minneapolis Star and Tribune beginning in the 1940s. She was also an author and city promoter extraordinaire. Flanagan was born in Des Moines, Iowa and attended Drake University from 1942-1945, where she pursued a major in drama. After a summer at the Minneapolis Times, she left college and began working in the promotion department from 1945 to 1947. Flanagan was a reporter for the Minneapolis Tribune from 1947-1958. In 1958 she was named the women’s editor for the Minneapolis Star and Tribune and worked in that capacity until 1965 when she was named a columnist for the Star. She wrote about “interesting personalities and colorful events.” She also used the column as a “constant and effective crusade for city beautification and for the preservation of historic buildings.”

M/A 1994.16.01-78

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Fletcher, Ken

Ken Fletcher is an amateur transit enthusiast and architectural model designer. In 1976, Fletcher prepared a proposal for the Hiawatha Avenue Citizens Advisory Committee suggesting a light rail line be developed between Downtown Minneapolis and Minneapolis-St. Paul International Airport via Hiawatha Avenue. While his efforts and light rail advocacy were not immediately successful, 25 years later in 2001 work finally began on a light rail line running along Hiawatha Avenue. The Hiawatha Line, which opened in 2004, strongly resembles Fletcher's original plan in many respects.

M/A 2012.20

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Fortnightly Study Club

Women's club was organized in 1908 and federated in 1911. Study programs varied, with emphasis on the study of countries and various literary topics. A list of members shows most women are unmarried, unlike other women's clubs.

M/A 2000.127.01

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Foster, Charles H.

Charles Howell Foster was born in Elizabeth, New Jersey in 1913. His father, who was a pharmacutical executive expected his son to grow up to become a business man. However, Charles' interests were more in literature and letters. To this end he decided to become a poet, and began corresponding with Robert Frost during his prep school education. In 1936 he recieved his Bachelors degree in English from Amhurst college. In 1937 he recieved a Masters in english from the University of Iowa followed by a Ph.D in 1939. 

Although he managed to publish several poems, he decided to turn his talents to accademia. Foster became recognized internationally for his expertise in 19th century American literature, and wrote several books on the subject. These included a Biography of Harriet Beecher Stowe which recieved rave reviews from the New York times. In addition, he was also on the board of editors for the New England Quarterly and wrote book reviews for the Minneapolis Star Tribune.

In addition to his writing he was also a respected educator. He taught at a number of colleges in the U.S. including the Univeristies of Iowa and Collorado, and was the chairman of the English department at Grinnell College. He began teaching at the University of Minnesota in 1958, and was the director of the American Studies Department in addition to being part of the English Graduate Studies Division. This was to be his final teaching position which he would hold until his retierement in 1971.

Furthermore, Foster was also a collector of rare 19th century books, pamphlets, and manuscripts. Many of these were copies of the early American authors that he so loved. Eventually he would donate a significant number of these items to the Minneapolis public library.After his retirement Foster moved to Luray Virginia for a number of years, but returned to Minnesota in 1994. In 1995 he passed away due to complications with Pneumonia.

M/A 2012.21.01

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Fraser, Donald

Donald M. Fraser was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota on February 20, 1924. Fraser was educated in the Minneapolis Public School system and went on to receive a law degree from the University of Minnesota. He was admitted to the bar in 1948 and practiced law in Minneapolis for the Firm of Larson, Lindquist, Fraser, and Magnuson.

Donald Fraser, a member of the Minnesota Democratic-Farmer-Labor Party, served in the Minnesota Senate from 1955-1962 representing Hennepin County District 29. In 1962 Fraser was elected to the United States House of Representatives where he served for Minnesota’s Fifth District until 1979. In 1979, Fraser was elected Mayor of Minneapolis, where he has thus far been the city’s longest serving Mayor representing the city from January 1, 1980 until December 31, 1993.

M/A 1998.56.01-07

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Freidman, Anne

Anne Freidman was a January 1924 graduate of North High School in Minneapolis. As a North High student, Freidman participated in the Spanish Club, Civic Forum, Literary Society, Special Chorus, Girls' League, and the Harmony Contest of 1920. She was also very active with friends and attended music concerts and theater performances regularly.

M/A 2010.03.01

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Friday History Club of Minneapolis

Organized in 1896 by a small group of women desiring self-improvement and friendship. Literary and miscellaneous programs were followed for a number of years and later the study of various countries was undertaken.

M/A 2000.128.01

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Friday Study Club

Friday Study Club was organized January 22, 1926. They joined the Fifth District Federation of Women's Clubs on January 15, 1932. The club was organized for self-improvement, combining public speaking and the study of various topics including current events and parliamentary law practice.

M/A 2000.129.01

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Gale, Samuel A.

M/A 1998.63.01

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Gale, Sarah Pillsbury

Sarah "Sadie" Belle Pillsbury Gale was born in 1866 to John Sargent Pillsbury, founder of the C.A. Pillsbury & Company milling company and eighth Governor of Minnesota. She was his youngest daughter. She graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1888. In 1892, she married Edward C. Gale of Minneapolis, a Harvard-educated lawyer. They had one son, Richard Pillsbury Gale, who represented the 3rd District in the U.S. Congress and two grandsons, Richard Pillsbury Gale Jr. and Alfred Gale. Sarah was active in philanthropic and women's club work in the city for many years. Sarah Pillsbury Gale died on November 14, 1944.

M/A 1998.17.01

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Gleaners Study Club

Women's study club, organized in April 1914, and federated in 1915. Programs of study covered a wide variety of topics. Members also attended lectures as a club.

M/A 2000.130.01

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Glyer, Violet

May Violet Victoria Glyer (who went by the name of Violet) was born in Chisago County, MN on May 31, 1907 to Alfred and Beda Lindberg Glyer. Violet graduated from Forest Lake High School in 1925. Violet entered the University of Minnesota nursing program and graduated with a nursing degree in 1927. She got a job as a school nurse in St. Paul. 

At 35 years of age, Glyer enlisted as a nurse to serve in the U.S. Army shortly after Pearl Harbor. She served in the 26th General Hospital Unit(University of Minnesota) 1942-1945. In the course of her military career, she was stationed in Fort Sill, Oklahoma, Birmingham, England, Oran and Constantine, North Africa, Bezerte and Bari, Italy, Boston, Massachusetts, Cairo, Egypt, Palestine, Des Moines, Iowa. After the war, Glyer became a Public Health nurse in 1946 for the city of St. Paul and retired in 1968 and moved to Gull Lake near Brainerd. She died October 26, 2001.

M/A 2005.07.01

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Goodwin, Hugo

Hugo Goodwin (approximate dates 1883-1936) studied with Wilhelm Middelschulte in Chicago, the French composer and organist Charles Widor and the pianist Moszkowsky. He was a well-known organist, giving 697 concerts in the St. Paul Municipal Auditorium. Prior to moving to Minnesota to join the music faculty of Carleton College in Northfield, he taught organ and composition at Grinnell College, where he had earned his masters degree. He died on August 17, 1936 while vacationing on the North Shore of Lake Superior.

M/A 2012.09.01

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Green Institute

The Green Institute was a nonprofit community economic development organization incorporated in the State of Minnesota in 1993. The Institute was founded as the result of an environmental justice movement against the siting of a large garbage transfer station in a residential area of the Phillips neighborhood in South Minneapolis. The Institute's original mission, as defined in Sam Grant's 1993 business plan (see below), was dedicated to a non-oppressive environmental-economic restoration of our urban community, aiming to be a model for energy conservation, generation of renewable energy and reduction of solid waste, and striving to create and maintain an ecologically balanced urban environment through sustainable economic development, environmental education, environmental job training, and fostering urban environmental awareness.

M/A 2012.23.01-08

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Guthrie Theater

The Guthrie Theater was started by the Irishman Sir Tyrone Guthrie who wanted to found a new theater in a community unexposed to professional theater, yet willing to support a company of its own. Many cities showed interest in the project, but it was Minneapolis that won them over. After significant funds were raised, ground broke on a site beside the Walker Arts Center, which was donated by the T.B. Walker Foundation. The Company presented its first offering, a highly controversial production of Hamlet, in May 1963. 

Tyrone Guthrie served as artistic director from 1963 to 1965, at which point, his protégé, Douglas Campbell took over as artistic director of the Theater. When managing director Oliver Rea resigned in 1966, Peter Zeisler was left as the sole managing director. And when Campbell left only a year later, Zeisler hired two additional managing directors, leaving the company without an artistic director for three seasons. Mr. Guthrie would come direct a play each year after he retired until his death in 1971.

In the late 1960s, the Guthrie decided it was time to expand. The Guthrie received one million dollars in the Walker/Guthrie fund drive, and when the remodeled theater opened in 1970, the two organizations shared an entrance and common lobby. In 1969, the theater began facing major financial problems. The original company had left and the funds from the Ford Company were gone, leaving the company with no plan in place to make up the losses.

Enter Michael Langham from Britain, the new artistic director who started in the midst of this finical crisis in 1971. Langham devised a plan and also instated some classic plays with new twists that the audience loved and through the 1970s the Guthrie prided itself in being debt free. Langham also improved the touring program, which expanded and grew all the way through the 1980s and provided extra income that the Guthrie needed.

M/A 2012.15.01-10

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Harrington, Clara H.

The collection details and documents Harrington's donation of a mobile canteen for the British Military via the English-Speaking Union. Correspondence and newspaper clippings on the American Red Cross, Hennepin County Chapter.

M/A 1994.18.01

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Hatcher, Edmond Kent

Edmund Kent Hatcher ("Eddie") was born in Minneapolis on September 9, 1936 to Kent Frederick Hatcher and Lillian Marie Duford Hatcher. He began studying ballet at the Academy of the Ballet on a scholarship while attending Edison High School (Minneapolis, Minn.). He was a member of the St. Paul Opera company from 1952-55, then went to Chicago to study and teach with Lorna Mossford. From 1955-1959 he performed with Ruth Page Opera Ballet, the Lyric Opera of Chicago and the National Company of My Fair Lady. He also performed for other companies, such as the Pittsburgh Civic Light Opera, the Ballet Souffle, the Metropolitan Opera of New York, and summer stock companies, such as Melody Fair. He joined the American Ballet Theatre in New York in 1960, traveling with them on tours of Cuba, Europe, the Soviet Union and numerous US cities. He left the ABT in 1965, returning to Minneapolis. Hatcher continued to perform with local ballet companies, including the Minnesota Ballet, before retiring from the stage in 1972. 

Hatcher began a career as an operating room technician at the Hennepin County Medical Center, where he worked for 26 year, retiring on Sept. 11, 2001. Hatcher wrote poetry for many years, his poems were published in local anthologies, newspapers and periodicals. He met his partner, Steve Langlie, in 1969, living with him until his death on July 3, 2015.

M/A 2012.14

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Hauser, Irene Melgaard

Irene Melgaard Hauser was born in Argyle, Minnesota in 1896. She died February 17, 1990. She was an English major at Carleton College and graduaded magna cum laude in 1918. She was the first female editor of the student newspaper, the Carletonian. Hauser received her graduate degree from the Los Angeles Library School, now University of Southern California. Irene Melgaard married Walter U. Hauser in 1925. They had met in 1918 and corresponded while Irene was in California. Irene's father had a long illness that delayed their marriage until 1925. Walter Hauser was a lawyer and community leader.

Irene worked for the Minneapolis Public Library from 1920 to the birth of her first child, Susan in 1926. Hauser worked in the reference and catalog departments. By 1932 the family finances were in such dire straits because of the Depression that Irene returned to the library. In 1938 Irene Hauser went to work for the Works Progress Administration. The specific project was to catalog the entire Minneapolis Journal from 1858 to 1939. Gratia Countryman, former director of the Minneapolis Public Library supervised the project. Irene Hauser, Countryman's friend and protege, was her assistant on the project. It was one of the most interesting times of Hauser's life. The workers were unemployed stockbrokers, teachers, lawyers and artists. The Hausers invited members of the WPA project without families to their dinner table for holidays. Hauser worked on the project until 1942.

After the WPA project, Hauser continued her library work as a volunteer for Plymouth Congregational Church. She brought together the book collection in one space and cataloged it. The library was later a significant part of the church.

M/A 2005.06.01

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Hawley, Newton F.

Newton F. Hawley was born in Springdale, Iowa in 1859. After attending school at Grinnell College in Iowa, Hawley practiced law for over 20 years. In 1906, he was named the treasurer and managing executive of the Farmers and Mechanics Bank of Minneapolis. 

Hawley was also very active in civic affairs, serving on various local boards in Minneapolis, as a trustee of Grinnell College and as the president of the American Bankers' Associations's savings bank section.

Hawley died in 1918 after a brief illness, survived by his wife and two sons.

M/A 2012.11.01

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Heatherdale Study Club

The study club was organized in 1915. By 1916, the meetings were set for alternate Tuesdays. The topic for the 1916/17 years was Spanish America; each meeting covered aspects such as Mexico: Aztec Civilization and Mythology or Columbia and the Panama Canal. In subsequent years, the themes selected for programs included India. Specific meetings might be about art and sculpture in India, religious systems in India, American drama, modern Japan (1920/21), Negro problems (1923/24), or factors to be considered in promoting peace (1925/26). Program papers were limited to twenty minutes. Speakers from outside of club membership occasionally spoke; i.e. a representative from the League of Women Voters. Current event reports might be given concerning local events, political activities, the League of Women Voters, the Women’s Community Council, or the Women’s Welfare League. Comments on local events such as the Walker Art Gallery being built or money being collected for wounded soldiers at Fort Snelling would be shared at the meetings. 

By 1916, Heatherdale was a part of the Fifth District Minnesota Federation of Women’s Club, which was a part of the General Federation of Women’s Clubs of Minnesota. The Heatherdale Club would use the Rules of Order followed by the Fifth District Minnesota Federation of Women’s Clubs. An act granting a charter to the General Federation of Women’s Clubs was enacted by the congress in March 3, 1901 and amended by an Act approved in April 28, 1904. The objective was to unite women’s clubs and like organizations throughout the world for the purpose of their common interest in education, philanthropy, public welfare, moral values, civics, and fine art. They were to have dues and an annual convention.

Heatherdale Study Club founded in 1915 thrived until 1982 when it was disbanded. Some of the members or their relatives were active from inception and helped celebrate the organization’s twenty-fifth and fiftieth anniversaries.

M/A 2000.01.01-04

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Hennepin County War Records Committee

Collection consists of research done by Victory Memorial Drive War Committee to compile a Gold Star Roster of Hennepin County servicemen who died as a result of service in World War I. The Committee was also referred to as the Hennepin County War Records Committee. The roster was offically referred to as the "Gold Star Roll of Hennepin County". The Committee was located at 318 Court House, Minneapolis, Minnesota. George E. Leach was the Chairman. Cecil W. Shirk was the Secretary. Gratia Countryman was also on the War Records Committee. 

Collection includes correspondence and reports detailing the attempts of the Committee to compile a comprehensive list of servicemen connected to Hennepin County who died as a result of service in World War I. Efforts by the committee to ensure that the Gold Star Roster was comprehensive included at least one notice in the local newspaper, a canvass of every house in Minneapolis organized by the Women’s Community Council, and a survey all school districts in Hennepin County. Collection also includes correspondence and reports relating to Committee’s attempt to locate Service Records of Gold Star Roster candidates and determine eligibility of each candidate for membership on Gold Star Roster.

Members of the Gold Star Roster had a bronze marker placed on the Victory Memorial Drive. The dedication of Victory Memorial Drive was a major event in Minneapolis and Hennepin County’s history.

M/A 2005.10.01-04

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Herou, Louise

Louise Herou (1921-2003) was an exceptional athlete particularly in speed skating, participating in national championship competitions. She was also a standout in golf and participated in swimming and Diamondball (softball). She attended the University of Minnesota, graduating from the School of Law with honors and went on to become a practicing attorney. She was active in many professional organizations as well as being a member of the Citizen League of Minneapolis (charter member), YWCA, Minnesota UN Association, Foreign Policy Association, American Association of University Women, and the Women's Inter-club Council of Minneapolis. She was one of the first women to become a partner in a Minneapolis law firm, at the firm of Larson, Loevinger, Lindquist, Freeman and Fraser. She was active in promoting inter-collegiate sports for women. She married Chuck Saunders (owner of Charlie's Café Exceptionale). On Saunders' death in 1964, she took over Charlie's and ran it until closing it in 1982. She also served two terms as president of the Minneapolis Downtown Council.

M/A 1998.50.01-07

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Hill, Horace M.

Horace M. Hill was born in 1861. In 1879 he was hired at the hardware wholesale business Janney, Brooks & Co., which became Janney, Semple & Co. in 1884. Hill rose from general office duties to head buyer. When the firm was incorporated in 1891 with Hill as a partner and reincorporated in 1898 as Janney, Semple, Hill & Co. Hill had risen to the position of secretary. On the death of partner Frank B. Semple, Hill assumed the position of vice president, eventually assuming the title of president, a post he held until his death in 1948.

M/A 1998.38.01-03

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Historical Club

Origination date of organization is unknown. The object of the club was intellectual growth and social enjoyment. Programs were on historical topics.

M/A 2000.131.01

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Historical Research, Inc.

Historical Research Incorporated was established by Norene Roberts in 1979. Dr. Roberts earned her PhD in American Studies from the University of Minnesota in 1978. She was also employed by the Minnesota Historical Society as an architectural historian.

Historical Research Incorporated did many local research projects including research done for the new Federal Reserve Building (see M/A 2000.192.01-07). Historical Research Incorporated continued to exist until 1995 when Dr. Roberts moved to Massachusetts.

M/A 2000.192.01-07

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Hixson, Clara Julia

Clara Julia Hixson (1900-1994) was born in Hennepin County, Minnesota on July 29, 1900. She attended elementary school in Watertown, South Dakota and middle school in Hennepin County. She then attended Hopkins High School (Hopkins, Minn.) beginning in 1914 and graduated in 1918. Throughout high school, she was involved in the school theater program, Glee Club, and Athena Literary Society, and she was a vocal soloist at a number of school events.

By the 1960s, Hixson was working as a legal secretary in Des Moines, Washington. She died on August 4, 1994 in Des Moines, Washington.

M/A 2016.04.01

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Hollenbeck, Rosemary Needham

Enlisted in first year of the Marine Corp's Women's Reserve, 1943. Served from 1943-1947. Was stationed in Edenton, North Carolina, Cherry Point, NC, and San Diego, CA.

M/A 1998.45.01-03

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Holtzermann, Jacob D. and Eugenie

Jacob D. Holtzermann was born in Minneapolis in 1902. He graduated from South High School in 1918 and went on to study at the University of Minnesota, graduating there in 1921. He later earned a master's degree from Harvard University in International Law and pursued further studies at the University of Geneva, Switzerland and University of Munich in Germany.

Holtzermann initially worked as a branch manager for the National City Bank of New York. In 1931 he took over a dry goods store founded by his bachelor uncles Jacob and Louis in the 1880s. Holtzermann's Imports, located at 417-23 Cedar Avenue in the West Bank neighborhood, sold a variety of European goods. Holtzermann would continue to manage it for the majority of his life.

He unsuccessfully ran for the Minnesota State House's 31st District in 1934, 1936, and 1938. In 1938 he married Eugenie (Jenny) Velechovsky, a designer and illustrator from Vienna, Austria. She moved to Minneapolis and later became known by her own right for painting an extensive mural in the Childrens room of the Minneapolis Public Library in 1961.

M/A 1994.20.01-02

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Hosmer, James K.

James K. Hosmer was born in Northfield, Mass., Jan. 29, 1834. He attended Harvard University and the theological school there and for several years he was a Unitarian minister. After the Civil War, in which he served in the Union Army, he taught English literature and history at Antioch College, the University of Missouri and Washington University in St. Louis. 

Dr. Hosmer wrote extensively as a historian throughout his career. While at Harvard he met many famous writers of the day such as; Longfellow, Lowell, Emerson, Holmes, and Agassiz. Throughout his life he maintained friendships with other authors and public figures including Charles Eliot, William Dean Howells, Winston Churchill, James Bryce and Phillps Brooks.

He was appointed the director of the Minneapolis Public Library in 1892 succeeding Herbert Putnam. He served 12 years as director and two years as president of the American Library Association. Hosmer retired in 1904 and was succeeded by Gratia Countryman. The Hosmer library, built in 1916, was named in his honor in 1926. The Special Collections department was named in his honor in 2004.

Hosmer died on May 11, 1927.

M/A 2014.07.01

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Hostesses

The Hostesses were founded August 24, 1898. The purpose of their founding was to make arrangements for a ball, with the idea of making them a permanent social event each winter. Rules were drawn up relating to the management committee and to subscribers and the use of tickets. The balls were held at the West Hotel. The first ball was on November 18, 1898.

M/A 2000.132.01-04

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Humphrey, Hubert H. and Muriel

Hubert H. Humphrey Jr. was born on May 27, 1911 in Wallace South Dakota. His father Hubert H. Humphrey Sr. was a drugstore owner and part time politician. He was the second of four children, and was instilled with a zeal for work and politics by his father at an early age. Humphrey served as the 38th Vice President of the United States under President Lyndon B. Johnson, from 1965 to 1969. Humphrey twice served in the United States Senate, representing Minnesota from 1949 to 1964 and 1971 to 1978. He was the nominee of the Democratic Party in the 1968 presidential election, losing to the Republican nominee, Richard Nixon.

M/A 1994.21.01-03

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Independent Order of Good Templars, Grand Lodge of Minnesota

The Grand Lodge of Minnesota, I.O.G.T. was founded in 1857. Their general purpose was to promote the cause of temperance in Minnesota, and the literary, social, and moral culture of its members and the members of its subordinate organizations. The Grand Lodge of Minnesota was part of an international organization known as the Independent Order of Good Templars, which as a whole, was also dedicated to abolishment of alcohol from society.

M/A 2000.134.01

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Inter Nos Study Club

Date of organization unknown but earliest program is dated 1908. Study topics included countries, famous men and women, drama, and other subjects. Collection consists of five programs (1908-1915).

M/A 2000.137.01

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Intercity Bridge (Ford Parkway Bridge)

The Intercity Bridge, also known as the Ford Parkway Bridge or the 46th St. Bridge, was constructed in 1925-27 as a joint project of the cities of Minneapolis and St. Paul. The construction cost of $1,324,000 was split between the two cities. The bridge is 1,524 feet long and constructed of reinforced concrete in an open-spandrel, two-rib continuous arch. It was originally constructed to improve access from Minneapolis to the Ford Motor Company's Twin Cities Assembly Plant in St. Paul. 

The bridge is one of the largest reinforced concrete bridges in Minnesota and was also notable as a major work of the prominent Norwegian-American engineer, Martin Sigvart Grytbak. It was redecked and widened in 1972-73 and underwent further repairs in 2004. The bridge was listed with the National Register of Historic Places in 1989.

M/A 2012.13.01

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Ionian Study Club

Women's club was organized and federated in 1926. The object of the club was "the mutual improvement of its members in literature, art, science, and the vital interests of the city." The club was founded by Mrs. Emily Ramsay, Mrs. D.H. Smith, and Mrs. D. Macfarlane in 1926. Study meetings and group events tended to be held monthly in a member’s household. Members of the organization tended to be from the Minneapolis area exclusively in the earlier years of 1926-1944. Between the years 1951-1974, the membership expanded to women in the greater Twin Cities metro. he Grand Lodge of Minnesota, I.O.G.T. was founded in 1857. Their general purpose was to promote the cause of temperance in Minnesota, and the literary, social, and moral culture of its members and the members of its subordinate organizations. The Grand Lodge of Minnesota was part of an international organization known as the Independent Order of Good Templars, which as a whole, was also dedicated to abolishment of alcohol from society.

M/A 2000.134.01

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Iota Study Club

Women's club was organized in 1927 and federated in 1939. The object of the club was united effort toward personal improvement, higher education, and social progress. There club motto was “Better is Wisdom than all Precious Things.” They also corresponded with eleven women's clubs in Central and South America in the late 1930s. This particular club was located in Minneapolis, MN, or in the fifth congressional district among many others women’s clubs tied to the larger Minnesota Federation of Women’s Clubs.

M/A 2000.136.01

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Irvin, Lawrence

Lawrence Irvin was born June 5th, 1915. In late 1957 Irvin was selected to be the new Director of Planning for the City of Minneapolis effective March 1st, 1958. He worked on projects including the skyways, Nicollet Mall, Cedar-Riverside, and Loring Park. Irvin died on February 24th, 1984 from a heart condition that had afflicted him for several months.

M/A 1994.22.01-11

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Israelson, Nellie Helen

Born Helen Nelson in Minneapolis on August 30, 1888 to Swedish-born Nels O. and Anna Nelson. Brother Nels O. Nelson, Jr. 

Married Edward Charles Israelson. One child: Edward Charles Israelson, Jr. (1923-1997)

M/A 2014.06.01

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Jensen, Laurence and Linnea Schonstedt

Laurence entered the Army as a private and was stationed at Camp Wallace Texas Battery (A) 29th Coastal Artillery Training Base (C.A.T.B.). His first correspondence to Linnea was from February 1942 (envelope from the first letter in collection from February 21st). It appears that Laurence served as an airplane mechanic. He was promoted to while at Camp Hulen Texas in September 1942. While in Europe he had a dog called Butch who rode on his jeep.

According to the correspondence from Laurence, Linnea worked initially at Pillsbury Flour Mills and later for the Red Cross (she may have been volunteering for them). Laurence and Linnea married in 1948.

M/A 2003.05.01-02

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Jensen, William Leland

William Leland (Lee) Jensen was born on July 27, 1907 in Albert Lea, Minnesota. Jensen grew up in Albert Lea, attending Albert Lea High School and later studying economics at Carleton College in Northfield, Minnesota. Jensen married Doris Verne Phelps, whom he met while at Carleton, in 1932. They had one daughter (Nancy Lee) born in 1934 and one son (William Phelps) in 1937.

During World War Two, Jensen served as a Regional Director for the War Production Board, overseeing operations in Minnesota, North Dakota, South Dakota and Montana, one of 12 regional offices across the country. The WPB was responsible for overseeing the production of war materiel, allocating scarce industrial resources, and rationing civilian use of gasoline, rubber, and other important materials. He continued to serve this role in the Civilian Production Administration (the postwar sucessor to the War Production Board) until 1947 when he resigned to return to private business.

Jensen remained in Minneapolis thereafter, participating in various civic and business organizations. Jensen died on April 29, 1998 after suffering a stroke and is buried next to his wife Doris at Lakewood Cemetery.

M/A 1998.48.01-02

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Johnson, Asa Emery

Asa Emery Johnson was born in 1825 in Bridgewater, New York. After studying homeopathy, he entered into a three year medical apprenticeship with a Dr. Erastus King. He completed his professional studies by two courses of lectures at the University of the City of New York and was granted the degree of M.D., after which he moved to Beloit, Wisconsin, where he met his future wife Hannah Russel. 

In 1853, he moved to St. Anthony in Minnesota Territory, where he entered into partnership with Dr. Le Boutillier and established a highly successful practice. Dr. Johnson was an able surgeon and specialized in eye problems. Dr. Johnson was a founding member of the first county medical society in Minnesota, the St. Anthony and Minneapolis Union Medical Society. Dr. Johnson presented the first paper to the society. In addition to his medical interests, Dr. Johnson was an avid botanist and geologist, and was one of the eleven charter members of the Minnesota Academy of Natural Sciences (which was, in fact founded in his office) in 1873. He died in Minneapolis in 1906.

M/A 1994.23.01

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Johnson, Charles O.

Charles O. Johnson was born in Minneapolis in January 29, 1898 and was a 1916 graduate of North High School. His first job in the newspaper business was as a copy boy at ten years old. He began his long carer as a sports reporter while still in high school, covering high school sports as a cub reporter. He covered the 1916 National Open golf tournament at Minikahda for several out of town newspapers. After graduating from high school, he was hired by the Minneapolis Daily News as telegraph editor. He returned to the Tribune in 1919 as assistant night sports editor. At 22 he was hired by the Minneapolis Star as sports editor. When the Star and the Tribune combined in 1941, he became the sports editor of both papers, a job he held until his retirement in 1968. He covered many events of national and international importance, including World Series, heavyweight championship fights, even the 1932 and 1960 Olympics. His great love, though, was the local sports scene. he rarely missed a Minneapolis Millers game and played a leading role in bringing professional sports to Minneapolis. He retired in 1968, but continued to be a booster of Minnesota sports until his death from a heart attack in 1984.

M/A 1994.24.01

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Johnson, Edward M.

Edward M. Johnson may have become a lawyer and alderman for Minneapolis' 2nd ward.

M/A 1994.25.01

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Johnstone, Muriel Ruth

Muriel Ruth Johnstone was born on November 1, 1906 in Watersmeet, Michigan to parents James F. Johnstone and Bertha A. Reinhardt. Johnstone was a June 1923 graduate of North High School in Minneapolis. During her senior year, she lived at 317 Lyndale Ave. N. Muriel, also called Ruth, was a member of the Senior Literary Society, Booth Tarkington Dramatic Club, North High Park Board, Class Picture Committee, and Class Social Committee. Johnstone's extracurricular activties included singing and playing piano and violin. She attended many plays and concerts at the high school and local theater, and followed the girls and boy’s high school sports teams. Johnstone died on January 31, 1996 in San Bernardino County, California.

M/A 2005.03.01

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Jones, Harry Wild, Compiled by Kate Johnson

Harry Wild Jones, the son of a Baptist clergyman and twenty-seventh in a direct line of descent from William the Conqueror, was born in Schoolcraft, Michigan, on June 9, 1859, and graduated from the Massachusetts Institute of Technology in 1882. Having worked under Henry Hobson Richardson in Boston for one year, Jones came to Minneapolis, Minnesota, in September 1883, establishing his own architectural practice there in 1885, where he remained for the rest of his career. Although Jones specialized in ecclesiastical architecture, he also designed many private residences and public and commercial buildings in the Minneapolis area and throughout the United States. He taught architecture at the University of Minnesota and lectured on church architecture at the University of Chicago.

Some of his most notable Minneapolis buildings include Butler Brothers Warehouse (Butler Square), Cream of Wheat building, the award-winning Lakewood Cemetery Chapel, the first Lake Harriet Pavilion, Washburn Park water tower, and the Nicollet Ball Park. Other Minneapolis buildings include the Eugene Field Public School, the churches of Calvary, Knox Presbyterian, and Judson Memorial, and the homes of F.W. Clifford, Emery Mapes, and L.S. Gillette. He served as a member of the Minneapolis Board of Park Commissioners for many years and was the architect for park buildings. He also served as director of the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts for several years.

Jones died in Minneapolis, on September 25, 1935, at Elmwood, his home in Washburn Park (a neighborhood often referred to as Tangletown).

M/A 1998.66.01-03

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Juell, Marvin

Marvin Juell worked as a custodian for the Minneapolis Public Library from the 1930s until his death in 1958. He lived in Minneapolis with his wife, Dorothy. The couple had four children: Bruce, Mac Allen, Carol and Gloria. Juell died on Nov. 28, 1958.

M/A 2015.04.01

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Junior League of Minneapolis

The Junior League of Minneapolis was a women's non-profit volunteer organization founded November 9, 1923. The first president was Katherine Phelps. Membership is limited to women under 38 years of age. The purpose of the League is exclusively educational and charitable and is "to promote voluntarism; to develop the potential of its members for voluntary participation in community affairs; and to demonstrate the effectiveness of trained volunteers." The J. L. M.'s work is supported by membership dues, fundraisers including The Clothes Line (a resale shop), the ASID Designer Showcase Home, and by gifts from members and community friends. Some of their projects have included Arts Central Project, Group Home of the City, Inc., Pharm House Project, Jeremiah Project, Helping Hands, Violence Against Women Coalition, and Parade of Hope. As a whole, the Junior League is an international women's organization that has chapters in Canada, Great Britain, Mexico, and the United States.

M/A 2000.138.01

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Kenwood Monday Club

Date of organization of women's study group unknown but earliest program is dated 1895. Programs of study included countries, literary study, history, and art. Some areas of study include English literature, Holland and Belgium culture, drama, German history, Lewis and Clark Expedition, etc. Members of the organization taught each other about different topics of study during their weekly meetings.

M/A 2000.139.01

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Kenwood Park Neighborhood Center

The Kenwood Park Neighborhood Center was a contentious and controversial construction project that met both significant opposition and support from Kenwood residents in the planning stages from 1979-1983. Opposition came in the form of a lawsuit against the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board (MPRB) and the City of Minneapolis by Kenwood residents Charleen Bacigalupo, Michael Bress, and Betty Lillehei. Support came in the form of a Kenwood Park Citizens Planning Committee, which also consisted of Kenwood residents. Eventually, the proposed plan won out in 1983, due to majority neighborhood support and financial difficulties for opposition in courts. The Kenwood Park Neighborhood Center was completed in 1984.

M/A 2000.182.01

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Killen, Marcella F.

Marcella Killen was born Marcella Fitzgerald in Minneapolis December 19, 1909. She was the first woman nominated to run for Congress in Minnesota. She lost a primary race as a liberal Republican in 1946, then ran as the DFL candidate in both 1948 and 1950, losing both times. She was politically active in other causes, as well, She worked for 10 years in the U.S. Department of the Interior. She and her husband Starr retired to Winter Haven, Florida where she died September 11, 1993.

M/A 1994.26.01

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Kimball Organ Preservation Steering Committee

The 10,000 pipe Kimball organ has been part of the heritage of the City of Minneapolis since it was first installed in the Municipal Auditorium in 1928. Hailed as one of the finest pipe organs of its kind, it still remains as a tribute to the fine craftsmanship of the W. W. Kimball Company of Chicago, who built the organ at an approximate cost of $125,000. 

The "Mighty Kimball" or "Voice of Minneapolis" as it was christened in 1928, is one of only three of its particular size ever manufactured by the Kimball Company. It is one of the largest pipe organs in the midwest, weighing over 30 tons, with handcrafted pipes that vary in size from 1/2 inch to over 30 feet. One of the unique features of the Kimball is the two consoles, a concert console and a theatre console, which in its early days rose dramatically out of the basement on elevators (a feature which was removed in the 1960s during the Auditorium remodel).

While the idea for the Kimball was strong, it lacked sufficient funding and support from the start, which caused problems throughout the organ's lifetime. A Twin Cities Musicians Union rule requiring the employment of 15 musicians whenever the organ was played, combined with the economic depression and new innovations in organ technology, meant that the organ was rarely played after its grand opening in 1928. Yet the Kimball was never forgotten and from the 1950s to the 1980s, it was used an estimated 10 or 12 times per year.

In 1986, plans were developed for a new convention center on the site of the Minneapolis Auditorium. With the backing of Mayor Donald Fraser and support from other city promotors including StarTribune Columnist Barbara Flanagan, the Minneapolis Organ Trust Fund was established to kickstart preservation efforts and save the Kimball from destruction. Unfortunately, after seven years of struggle to save the organ, issues arose with the organ contractor and the job was left unfinished. Today, the Kimball sits disassembled in storage at the Minneapolis Convention Center, awaiting a new home or the chance to be rebuilt so it can sing again.

M/A 2013.07.01

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Kittleson, J. Harold

J. Harold Kittleson was born May 8, 1905. In 1917, the Kittleson family moved to south Minneapolis. Kittleson graduated from South High School in December 1922. After his father's death in 1922, he began working at Dayton’s Department Store in downtown Minneapolis in shipping and receiving. By 1924, he had tranferred to the book department. 

In January 1930, he became a book buyer and later manager of the Mabel Ulrich Book Shop in Minneapolis. September of that year he went to work for the Powers Department Store in the book department (this was the premier bookstore in Minneapolis pre-World War II). Leonard Wells, the book department manager died in 1933 and Kittleson became the buyer and manager of the department. After WWII, Kittleson joined Random House as a sales representative. In his capacity as a sales representative, he traveled from Duluth to Corpus Cristi, Texas to Buffalo N.Y. to Miami Beach, Florida Beach. Kittleson retired from Random House after 23 years to take care of his mother who passed away in 1972.

Kittleson was a life long member of the Ampersand Club, the Skylight Club in Minneapolis, and Grolier Club in New York. He was president and honorary board member of the Friends of the Minneapolis Public Library and a trustee of the Minneapolis Public Library from 1972-1982. He died September 27, 2002.

M/A 1994.27

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Ladies of the Round Table

The Ladies of the Round Table was established in 1909. Their name came from the Knights of the Round Table. Their club motto was "Its object shall be to pursue such a course of study as shall at different periods be elected by the members, for mutual benefit and instruction." Prominent subjects of study included countries of the world, United States, nature study, Minnesota, and miscellaneous topics. Moreover, the group also partook in a number of community and charity efforts, both local and international. Some efforts included supporting a French orphan and contributing to the World War I relief program. This club was part of the larger Minnesota Federation of Women’s Clubs. The membership consisted of women from the Minneapolis area.

M/A 2000.140.01

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Ladies' Shakespeare Club

The Ladies’ Shakespeare Club was organized in 1891 and federated in 1895. Study programs consisted of Shakespeare plays and later other topics were included. Each year consisted of the study of one or two Shakespeare plays, then acting out each work. Later on, other topics like Central and South America were included in their study topics. The membership included women mostly from Minneapolis.

M/A 2000.141.01

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Lake Harriet School

Community supporters of Lake Harriet school fought Minneapolis Public School Board (MPS Board) in a long drawn out battle to keep the Lake Harriet School open as a school and when that battle was lost, the neighbors of the school sought to save the building by converting it for use as a community center. Lake Harriet School Community Center, Inc. organized after the 1979 closing of LH School. Site was to be developed as a community center for educational, artistic and recreational purposes. Both battles were ultimately lost. The highly organized, well-spoken and well-written parents of the school children waged the fight from approximately 1970 to 1982. Parents included Michael Miller, Sara Stout, Jean Ward and others.

M/A 2004.01.01-02

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Lake Harriet Yacht Club

The Lake Harriet Yacht Club was established in 1941. The purpose of the club "shall be to promote the physical and mental culture and the social interests of its members, to advance their interest in aquatic and all other forms of sports, and particularly to encourage the sport of yachting and in connection therewith to promote the science of seamanship and navigation and to conduct races and regattas." The Club sponsors various races and regattas. Some races include the LHYC Spring regatta, the Aquatennial regatta, and Die Hard regatta. Awards and trophies are given in various categories. The club also holds a Fourth of July and Labor Day picnic. The Lake Harriet Yacht Club is based in Minneapolis but membership comes from various parts of the Twin Cities and Minnesota, especially in more recent years.

M/A 2000.142.01-02

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Larsen, Andreas Ruud

Andreas Ruud Larsen was born on January 21st, 1876 in the county of Hedmark in Norway. He was trained as an interior designer, but later moved to Nuremberg, Germany to study painting, drawing and design. Larsen also lived for a period in France before moving to New York in 1903. 

In 1909, Larsen was hired to head the art glass department of the Minneapolis glass and paint company Forman, Ford and Company. He worked there for fourteen years before deciding to establish his own company with Edward Gertsch in 1923. While working for Forman, Ford and Co. Larsen remained involved in the Minneapolis art community. Several of his paintings were featured in local and national exhibitions between 1911 and 1925.

Larsen ran the Andreas R. Larsen Stained and Leaded Glass Company successfully until his death on December 15, 1942. His was survived by his wife, Sigrid, who sold a number of sketches, drawings, books, pictures and samples of Mr. Larsen’s work to the Athenaeum in 1943.

M/A 1994.28.01-04

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Larson, Walter E.

Walter E. Larson was born in La Crosse Wisconson and moved to Minneapolis with his parents when he was 3 years old. He attended Sheridan and Vocational schools, and entered the meat business in 1924. 

Walter Edwin Larson (April 27, 1900 - April 23, 1979) on Feb. 7, 1933, married Katherine (later Catherine) Mary Semanko (June 14, 1903 – March 8, 1976) at St. Mary’s Russian Orthodox Greek Catholic Church, now known as St. Mary Orthodox Cathedral, in Northeast Minneapolis. They had four sons: Norman Walter ( Aug. 22, 1934), Lawrence Edmund (July 23, 1937), David Gregory (Nov. 7, 1940) and Glenn Thomas (Feb. 1, 1943).

Also in 1933 Walter opened a meat market at 2203 Johnson St. NE. He ran Larson Bros. Meats there, and an older brother, Al, ran the meat market they owned at 13th Avenue and 3rd St. NE. Walter became sole owner of the Johnson Street market, and after WWII, he sold it to the three Ready Brothers (Dan, Jack and Warren) who had worked for him. As of November 2010, Ready Meats was still in business, located at Johnson Street and 36th Avenue NE., although the Ready family is not involved in its ownership.

M/A 2007.02.01

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Leach, George E.

George E. Leach graduated from Central High School in 1894. Leach joined the National Guard in ca. 1905 and remained in service until the 1940's. He served in the First Minnesota Field Artillery, Battery B in the early years. In 1916 his outfit was called to mobilize to protect the southern border of Texas from further attacks from Mexico's Frachisco (Pancho) Villa's attacks on New Mexico. In 1918, he was sent to France to fight in World War I. At the war's end he had risen to the rank of Colonel. Upon returning from the war a decorated war veteran, he continued with the National Guard but also became involved in Minneapolis politics. In 1921, he was elected mayor of the city. He served as Mayor of Minneapolis from 1921-1929 and from 1937-1941. Some of the issues he worked for as mayor were to construct the Minneapolis Auditorium, to reduce taxes on small houses, to promote Minneapolis as a recreational and convention city, and the purchase of the Wold Chamberlain Airfield.

M/A 1994.31.01-03

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League of Women Voters of Minneapolis

The League was founded in 1919 to promote the political education of newly enfranchised women citizens. Locally, the League works to improve public policy in the city, region, and state. It focuses its efforts in three major areas: non-partisan voter information; research and action; and community development. The League publishes booklets on local government, elected offices, voting, and other key issues. They sponsor candidate and issue forums, "get out the vote" rallies, as well as being at the forefront of discussion on critical public issues. The League is a national organization that admits any woman for membership who is of voting age.

M/A 2000.143.01-02

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Leslie, Frank P. and Ruth Hill

Frank P. Leslie was born in St. Paul, Minnesota on December 9, 1892. His parents were John and Bessie McAfee Leslie; his father was the owner of the John Leslie Paper Company located in Minneapolis. Leslie attended Minneapolis schools, graduating from West High School in 1912 and later went on to attend the University of Minnesota (though he would graduate from Princeton University in 1915). After college Leslie began working for his father's company and would go on to become the firm's president. On June 24, 1916 Leslie married Ruth Hill. 

Ruth Hill Leslie was born July 24, 1892. Ruth’s father, Horace Hill, worked his way up from an errand boy to Vice President of Minneapolis hardware store, Janney, Semple Hill and Co. He was a longstanding supporter of the arts, and gave money to the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra. Ruth’s family spent the summers on Lake Minnetonka, in homes in Cottagewood, Maplewoods, and Deephaven, respectively, where the Hills joined a tight-knit group of Minneapolis businessmen’s families.

Frank P. Leslie was active in politics and civic and community causes throughout his life. He served in World War I, stationed first in Kansas, and then Washington DC. He served as a member of the first Hoover Commission with his Princeton classmate and future Secretary of Defense James Forrestal. He was an active force in the Republican Party in Minnesota for most of his adult life. He would also act as a director of the Northwestern National Bank, as a trustee for the Farmers and Mechanics Savings Bank, chairman of the board for the Title Insurance Company of Minneapolis, and as a trustee of his church in Minneapolis the Hennepin Avenue Methodist Church. Leslie was also interested in the history of printing and had a personal collection of rare books and manuscripts.

The Leslies had a longstanding friendship with J. Paul Getty. Getty, who was born in Minneapolis but later moved elsewhere, and had attended Emerson School with Ruth. Much of the collection concerns correspondence between Leslie and Getty, articles written by Leslie concerning Getty's homes, photographs and slides of a trip Leslie and his wife took to Getty's Sutton Place estate in the 1960s and an exhibition of Getty's art collection held at the Minneapolis Institute of Arts in 1972.

Frank P. Leslie died May 1, 1972 in Minneapolis and is buried at Fort Snelling Cemetery. Ruth Hill Leslie died December 3, 1969.

M/A 1998.39.01-03

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Lewis Parliamentary Law Association

The Lewis Parliamentary Law Association was organized in 1895 by Mrs. Mary Burr Lewis. It was a women’s organization dedicated to parliamentary law. Recruits had to first complete a two year course in parliamentary law to become members. The club was incorporated into the larger Minnesota Federation of Women’s Clubs in 1921. Their regular meetings on various legal issues were described as a post-parliamentary course. The association consisted of only sixty members at a time. New members would be recruited in the instance of death or resignation of a member. In the earlier years, the club met in different members’ homes, but later moved on to having meetings at YWCA locations. Some study topics included “Congressional Legislation,” “Panama Canal,” and “Divorce Laws.” They also took part in a number of civic engagements, such as women’s suffrage. Membership consisted of women from the Minneapolis area.

M/A 2000.15.01

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Lil Punks Club

The Lil Punks began having formal weekly meetings the fall of 1938. Each meeting had the treasurer’s and secretaries reports, new business etc. Purpose was to pass on any kindness given to them which translated to making doll clothes, stuffed animals, and scrapbooks for children. They also performed by singing at nursing homes and hospitals. A strong component of the club was planning social occasions. Food was also an important component of the meeting. The membership included only girls from the graduating class of 1941 from West High School. The group met continuously through their remaining years at West. After high school, formal get togethers were very rare for the whole group. Then in 1982, there was a revival of the club. Thereafter they met on an annual basis in each others homes or vacation homes around the country as friends, to see the sights and have a relaxing time.

Jean Pardo while in high school and then in the 1980s did a social study on the women in the group and their families. Looking at the girl’s parents-what their jobs were and educational levels, number of siblings, and for the Lil Punk members their education levels and home and/or professional careers, the women as individuals and as mothers and wives.

Minneapolis’ West High School seemed to have generated some strong leaders and activists for the city of Minneapolis and beyond, particularly for the late 30s and 40 classes. This informal club is an example of the structure and direction that many West High students from that era seemed to possess.

M/A 2005.08.01-04

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Linden Hills Neighborhood Council (LHiNC)

The Linden Hills Neighborhood Council serves as the voice of residents of the Linden Hills neighborhood, providing two-way communication with the City of Minneapolis and within the Linden Hills community. LHiNC consists of an all-volunteer Board of directors and encourages all Linden Hills residents to attend meetings to offer suggestions, ideas, and concerns. 

The LHiNC facilitates community-building in a variety of ways while collectively working toward the following goals: to solicit and represent residents' perspectives regarding community issues, to increase community involvement and promote neighborhood identity, to be the voice of the neighborhood in civic affairs affecting our community, to promote social, cultural, recreational, and educational opportunities in the area, to oversee implementation of the Linden Hills Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NRP) Action Plan, to organize the Linden Hills Festival each May and manage the Festival proceeds.

One government organization that worked closely with the LHiNC in developing neighborhood projects was the NRP (Neighborhood Revitalization Program). LHiNC completed their NRP Phase I program from 1994-2004. (Phase II was started in 2005). The LHiNC serves as an ambassador for the programs and initiatives, including grant making and administration and implementation of City funds granted by the NRP.

The Linden Hills neighborhood is in the Southwest section of Minneapolis. It is bordered to the north by Lake Calhoun, to the east by Lake Harriet, to the south by West 47th Street, and to the west by France Avenue.

M/A 2012.06.01-07

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Linden Hills Neighborhood History Projects

Material was gathered for three projects: 1) an exhibit on the history of Linden Hills sponsored by the architectural firm of TEA with Joann Ellison, project coordinator, and Greg LaLonde and Peter Sussman as primary researchers/writers. 2) the research from the book, Down at the Lake: an historical portrait of Linden Hills and the Lake Harriet District. The book material includes research from the exhibit, researcher Penny Petersen, and the book committee for the book. 3) An oral history project about Linden Hills, Greg Lelonde was the principal interviewer. The projects dated from 1995 for the exhibit, 2001 for the book and 1993-2000 for the oral histories.

M/A 2000.183.01-10

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Linden Hills Study Club

The purpose of the Linden Hills Study Club, according to the constitution in 1903-04 was “to pursue such a course of study as shall, at different periods, be elected by the members, for mutual benefit and instruction. It shall aim to dispense with written papers as much as possible in order to develop the habit of giving talks on the subjects assigned.” There would be a theme chosen for the year such as South America, all programs for the year were discussions centered around some aspect of the theme (i.e. economic conditions, literature, etc.). 

Women's study groups were popular especially at the turn of the century. This club was particularly long lived. It was founded on November 9th, 1903, joined the Minnesota Federation of Women’s Club in 1914, the Federated Group of Women’s Clubs in 1920, and is listed as being a member of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts in some of the programs. In the early years, only fifteen members could be active at a time, that number was greatly relaxed in later years.

M/A 1995.02.01

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Lofstrom, Edward V.

Edward Victor Lofstrom was born March 13, 1913 in Litchfield Minnesota. He attended the University of Minnesota where he graduated Summa Cum Laude in Architecture in 1935. After receiving his degree he designed both residential and civic buildings in a number of locations. 

In addition to his work as an architect he was a proponent of alternative modes of urban transportation. He was especially interested in promoting the implementation of a light rail system to serve the Twin Cities and the surrounding area. To this end he became involved in a number of groups that advocated mass transit. These included H.E.L.P (Highways Eliminate Lakes and Parks), the Advisory Commission, and the Advisory Committee on Transit.

Lofstrom died on January 15, 2002 in Edina Minnesota. He was 89 years old.

M/A 1994.29.01-02

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Loring, Albert C.

Albert C. Loring was President of the Pillsbury Flour Mills Company from 1908 until 1931. Born on August 31, 1858, he was the only son of Charles M. Loring a merchant and miller. Two years after his birth his parents moved to Minneapolis where he lived and received his early education. 

In 1876 he traveled east across the U.S. and decided to attend a preparatory school in West Newton Massachusetts. In addition to studying there, he also met and married his second wife Adelaide Maria Ingalls. He returned to Minneapolis in 1877 to attend the University of Minnesota, and was one of the first students to receive an education there. Furthermore, he also received his first job in the milling industry during this period. He became the secretary-treasurer of the Minnetonka Milling company which his father owned. He also helped organize Galaxy Milling, and later would become its president. In addition, he was involved in the day to day operations of the mills as well. He was instrumental in moving to more modern milling practices including the use of steel rollers, better strains of wheat, and the use of chemistry to improve flour quality.

In 1893 the mills that Loring worked at were combined into the Northwestern Consolidated Milling Company. At the time of its formation he was made Vice-President, and by 1900 he was made its president. Here he continued his tradition of fairness and quality, and worked to bring milling into the modern era.

In 1908 he received the Presidency of the Pillsbury, and set to work trying to improve their operations. He was very successful, and was responsible for implementing new quality standards as well as implementing many improvements. His work resulted in more than doubling the output of the mills under his control. Furthermore, he was able to negotiate the return of British owned properties in 1923. This brought the operation back under full domestic control for the first time since 1891.

Loring died in 1932 after a three day battle with Pneumonia.

M/A 1994.32.01

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Lutheran World Federation, Third Assembly

This was a large global Lutheran assembly held in Minneapolis, MN, August 15-25, 1957. The Lutheran delegates included 69 German, 48 Scandinavian, 60 North American, 16 Asian, 7 Latin American, and 5 African. The theme of the assembly was, “Christ Frees and Unites.” Some key speakers included Dr. Hanns Lilje, Dr. Franklin Clark Fry, Bishop Lajos Ordass, and Dr. Otto Dibelius. The agenda of the assembly were theological and liturgical issues and global issues pertaining to the Lutheran faith. Some global issues included division among Eastern and Western European Lutherans due to the Cold War, and political opposition to Lutherans in former colonial countries.

M/A 2000.161.01-02

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Lyman Family

A wealthy Minneapolis family that made a fortune through grain trading, the Lymans lived on Kenwood Hill in Minneapolis before moving to Minnetonka. All three male Lymans served in World War II and sent letters home.

M/A 2015.02.01-03

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Lynnhurst Travel Club

The Lynnhurst Travel Club was organized in 1915. The club consisted of women from the Minneapolis area. The club studied a particular country or region every season. Some countries of study included China, India, France, Poland, etc.. The study group studied politics, history, art and culture of each country. Meetings were held bi-monthly at a member’s household and the hostess was responsible for the presentation for that particular meeting.

M/A 2000.13.01

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Mack, Robert C.

Photographic surveys conducted by students of Professor Mack's architecture classes during the 1990s.

M/A 2016.02.01

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Marcy Holmes Neighborhood Association

The Marcy Holmes Neighborhood Association consists of residents from the Marcy-Holmes neighborhood. Their purpose: “…are to engage in projects that improve and enhance the community life and social welfare in the Marcy-Holmes neighborhood.” One neighborhood project titled the Historic Restoration Deferred Loan Program gave loans to historic sites or historic residential properties in Marcy-Holmes for the purpose of preservation, beautification, and continual maintenance. Other initiatives included road and bridge projects, environmental stewardship projects, and neighborhood events.

M/A 2000.68.01

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Mattke, Harold W.

Harold Mattke was born February 9th, 1923 in Morgan, MN. He attended Morgan High School which he graduated from in 1940. After high school he attended the Minnesota School of Business in Minneapolis until he was inducted into the U.S. Army in 1942. He served in the Army until being discharged in 1945.

After World War Two he enrolled at Gustavus Adolphus College, graduating in May 1948 with a Bachelor of Science degree in Business Administration. He married Bernice Swenson in October 1948 and the two moved to Minneapolis.

Harold worked a variety of jobs in the Minneapolis area including with J.C. Penny Company, as a life insurance salesman and with the Board of Pensions of the Lutheran Church in America. He retired in 1988. Bernice worked as a registered nurse at Asbury Hospital (which later became Methodist Hospital) and at Minneapolis General (which later became Hennepin County Medical Center). She retired in 1990.

Harold and Bernice had two daughters (Lynne and Laurie Jo) and one son (Timothy).

M/A 2004.03.01-06

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May, Jeanette

Jeanette May (1931- ) was a long-time resident of Northeast Minneapolis and a community advocate. She was born in Braham, MN and moved to Northeast Minneapolis in 1941.

An active member of the St. Anthony East Neighborhood Association (SAENA), she was involved with several other committees and sub-committees. Her most prominent activism involved her work to save the Grain Belt Brewery from demolition in the late 1970s and blocking the construction of highway I-335 in the mid-1970s. The freeway would have passed through Northeast Minneapolis along Central Avenue. Although land had already been cleared for construction, Jeanette May and the I-335 Concerned Citizens Committee were able to stop the freeway. After the freeway project was halted, Jeanette May continued to work with the Alternate to I-335 Land Use Committee to repurpose the cleared land. May also ran for First Ward city council in 1977.

M/A 2009.03.01-38

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McConnell, Viola Carlberg

Viola Carlberg McConnell was born in Albia, Iowa in 1903. She later moved to Minneapolis where she attended West High School and the University of Minnesota. In 1927 she married Harold Graham McConnell who later served as the vice president of the Minneapolis branch of the Federal Reserve Bank.

McConnell worked as a journalist and writer for a number of local publications including the Minneapolis Journal. As a Diocesan correspondent she had very close ties to the Minneapolis religious community and worked with a number of religious and faith-based organizations such as the Religious Public Relations Council and the YMCA. She was also an active member of St. Paul's Episcopal Church in Minneapolis.

McConnell died January 27, 1996 in Minneapolis.

M/A 1994.33.01

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Mecklenburg Travel Club

The club was organized in September 1937. It was named after Dr. George Mecklenburg, world traveler, lecturer, and minister at Wesley Methodist Church in Minneapolis. The primary purpose of the club was to, "make the members more keenly aware of world conditions, and to make them cognizant of the historical and traditional background of the people of the world, as well as their economic plight." People who had been members of Dr. Mecklenburg's numerous tour groups abroad were considered members of the Travel Club. Some tours included South Africa, Kenya, Jordan, Egypt, Norway, the British Isles, Italy, Germany, and so on. Members came mostly from the Twin Cities Metro area, but the club had various connections around the U.S. and globally.

M/A 2000.144.01

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Midwest Federated Chaparral Poets

This club was organized in 1941 with Margarette Ball Dickson as organizing regent. Myrta Albertson Wells of Minneapolis was the first president.

M/A 1996.03.01-04

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Milek, Perry

"Perry "The Scholar" Millik was the son of a Nazi soldier who died defending Berlin in 1945. Hi mother was an interpreter for the German Air Force and fluent in five languages. After World War II, she migrated with her small son to south Minneapolis where they lived in poverty with relatives.

"In a battle to escape grueling hardship, Millik scavenged his neighborhood for odd jobs. While still in grade school, he formed a street gang of eight boys who ran a significant shoplifting and fencing operation. By the time he was in junior high school, Millik had become a major Minneapolis drug dealer.

"Considered an accomplished fighter, Millik was sent to reform school after attempting an extremely violet robbery. Yet he managed to graduate from high school with honors. This was no small feat given he was running a commercial burglary ring at night. Millik was committed to the Minneapolis Workhouse immediately after high school After doing his stretch, he joined the United States Army, served proudly and was honorably discharged.

"He then entered college, earning two degrees. In an ironic twist, Millik accepted a position with the corrections department. He might have stayed on the right path if not for the release of Deuce Casper from prison. The two decided there was more money in crime than legitimate commerce, so Millik put his brilliant mind to work devising ways to beat the system. He eventually owned over one hundred buildings in the Twin Cities area and engaged in massive real estate fraud and drug manufacturing houses. Millik also acted as the front man for the Lebanese Alexander Brothers who sent a cut of their porn and prostitution profits to the old Genovese crime family in New York.

"Millik died in 2003 under mysterious circumstances and, according to "Minneapolis Organized Crime 1900-2000," his ashes were scattered from atop the Foshay Tower in downtown Minneapolis."

Source: "Minneapolis Underworld" by Elizabeth Johanneck, 2012.

M/A 2014.09.01

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Minikahda Club

The Minikahda Club was founded November 11, 1898. Founders and charter officers were Martin Koon, William Edgar, Walter Tiffany, and Harry Thayer, among others. The name Minikahda is a combination of two Indian words meaning "by the side of" and "water." The emblem of the club is a shield carried by Swift Dog, a Dakota chief. The purpose of the club "shall be the conducting of a club or society for the purpose of social enjoyment, mental and physical culture, and the renting, leasing, building or otherwise acquiring and owning a club house." Activities of the club included tennis, golf, trap and skeet shooting, swimming and platform tennis. Some of the events held at Minikahda were the National Amateur Tournament in August 1927 and the Walker Cup tournament in August 1957. Robert Jones, Charles (Chick) Evans, and local player Patty Berg distinguished themselves at Minikahda golf events.

M/A 2000.146.01-14

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Minneapolis (Tally Ho) Coaching Club

Tally Ho Coaching Clubs became a popular sport and recreation activity among the wealthy in the U.S. in the late 1800s and into the early 20th century. With its origins in Europe, more specifically Britain, a Tally Ho Coach consisted of large and luxurious horse carriage, drawn by two or more large horses. This type of carriage traveled with great speed and comfort. The clubs set-up coach routes between major cities or between prominent neighborhoods, hotels, social clubs and business areas in major cities. The sport was highly expensive for both traveler and sport enthusiasts, who took in part in actually maintaining and driving the coaches.

The Minneapolis (Tally Ho) Coaching Club started in 1889. Its offices or structure included President, Vice President, Treasurer, Secretary, and Executive Committee. All members were shareholders in the club, and were prominent leaders in the Minneapolis area.

M/A 2000.09.01

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Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroad

The Minneapolis and St. Louis Railroad (M&StL) began in 1870 and was taken over in 1960. The railroad faced financial difficulties for a significant portion of its history. In 1923, the railroad went into receivership and faced bankruptcy problems for a 20 year period. Pragmatic leadership and multiple reorganization schemes, however, helped pull the railroad out of its difficulties. By 1943, the railroad became debt free. In 1942, they launched into massive reorganization, led by President Lucian Sprague. Despite the company’s successful efforts to reorganize and quell financial problems, the small railroad company struggled to compete against more prominent companies and was absorbed by the larger Chicago & North Western Railway in 1960.

The M&StL served primarily the states of Minnesota, Iowa, South Dakota, and Illinois. The farthest point south started in Peoria, Illinois, ran through central Iowa, ran through the Twin Cities, and ended in eastern South Dakota. The railroad was designed to serve the agricultural regions of these particular Midwestern states, and bypass the massive railroad system of the Chicago region.

M/A 1995.03.01

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Minneapolis Aquatennial

The Aquatennial is the official civic celebration of Minneapolis which is held annually during the third full week of July. Originating in 1940, the outdoor festival celebrates the famous waters of Minneapolis—the lakes, streams, and the Mississippi. Historically, the Aquatennial was under the leadership of the Minneapolis Aquatennial Association, but in 2003 the rights to the festival were sold to the Minneapolis Downtown Association.

Originally known as “The Ten Best Days of Summer,” it is now advertised as “The Best Days of Summer.” Events include sports, games, parades, music performances, fireworks, and more, and are held all over the city of Minneapolis, often near the city’s lakes. During the Aquatennial’s early years, it was one of the most popular summer festivals. The festival has changed throughout the years, but some events have remained since 1940.

One of the most popular events of the Aquatennial is the crowning of the Queen of the Lakes. The Queen of the Lakes has remained a tradition since the festival’s first year, and is still an important part of the festival today. In addition to the Queen, other Aquatennial royalty include: Ambassadors, the Commodore, Captains, Princesses, and Senior Ambassadors. The Queen of the Lakes, the Aquatennial Royalty, and the Ambassadors are expected to represent Minnesota and the Minneapolis Aquatennial throughout their year long reign.

M/A 2000.14.01-05

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Minneapolis Auditorium

On June 4, 1927 the newly constructed Minneapolis Auditorium opened its doors on Grant St. E between 3rd Ave. S and Stevens Ave. (211 Grant St. E). The project was prompted by the Manufacturers Association of Minneapolis. The auditorium gave the city a significant venue to hold large conventions, both local and national, which would help bolster the Minneapolis and greater Minnesota economy and make the city a major center of industry, business, and commerce, nationally and globally. Since its initiation, the auditorium went through a number of changes. The first changes came in the 1960s with the restoration of the original auditorium and the addition of a convention hall, exhibit hall, restaurants, meeting rooms and other facilities, which was completed in 1965. More changes came in the 1980s with the demolition of the old auditorium and the construction of a new auditorium, new convention and meeting rooms, and other facilities. This project was completed in 1991. More recently, a small expansion was added in 2002. Over its history, this center has had everything from sporting events and theater to trade shows and large industrial expositions. Although the original auditorium and name cease to exist, the legacy continues through the current Minneapolis Convention Center, which replaced it.

M/A 2000.06.01-05

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Minneapolis Audubon Society

Organized March 10, 1915, the Minneapolis chapter is the oldest Audubon Society in Minnesota. The purpose of the organization: "is to promote the conservation and wise use of all natural resources, with particular emphasis on the study and protection of our native wildlife, and to cooperate with the National Audubon Society in its activities and with such other organizations as may have the same purpose." The organization sponsors field walks, civic projects, programs, and a library for members, and sell bird guides and other books and materials.

Originally called the Audubon Bird Club. In 1920 it became the Minneapolis Audubon Society and in 1975 it was renamed the Audubon Chapter of Minneapolis.

M/A 2000.148.01-12

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Minneapolis Board of Trade

The Minneapolis Board of Trade was organized in 1855 "to facilitate and promote the commercial, mercantile and manufacturing interests of the city of Minneapolis." One of the board's first successes was backing navigational improvements to the Upper Mississippi River. In 1881, the Board refused to relinquish the name to an organization then forming a grain exchange, which then became the Chamber of Commerce. After futile attempts to raise money by expanding membership in 1899 and 1900, the Board of Trade officially dissolved in February 1901 and merged into the Minneapolis Commercial club.

M/A 2012.03.01

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Minneapolis Charter

The Minneapolis Charter was created in 1872 by the Minnesota State Legislature. The charter works as the constitution or legal document that governs the City of Minneapolis. In 1898, the State gave jurisdiction to establish the Minneapolis Charter Commission, which takes on the role of reviewing and creating proposals for the Charter. The Minneapolis Charter Commission works in close contact with citizens and politicians alike to create these Charter proposals, or rules, laws, and structures governing Minneapolis.

M/A 2000.165.01

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Minneapolis College of Art and Design (MCAD)

In 1883 the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts was founded. This society would give rise to the Minneapolis Art Institute, The Children’s Theater, and the Minneapolis College of Art and Design. The Minneapolis College of Art and Design began as the Minneapolis School of Fine Arts, led by President Douglas Volk. The school held its first classes in 1886 in a rented apartment in downtown Minneapolis. 28 students were enrolled in the school, 26 of which were women. In 1889, the school relocated to the top floor of the newly built Minneapolis Public Library at Tenth Street and Hennepin.

In 1893, notable painter Robert Koehler moved from New York to Minneapolis to become the new president of the school. For the next ten years he worked to develop the curriculum known today as the art education field. By the end of the century, the school had two instructors and had instituted a summer term as well as night classes. The School changed its name to the Minneapolis School of Art to shed light on its main focus of study. In 1915, the Minneapolis Institute of Arts is built and the school is temporarily housed in the museum. In 1915, Ethel Morrison Van Derlip and her brother, Dr. Angus Washburn Morrison, pledged $50,000 to construct the School's first permanent facility. The Julia Morrison Memorial Building opened in 1916. In 1917 Mary Moulton Chaney becomes the school's first female president.

Many notable artists graduated from the school between the years 1915 and 1960 including Wanda Gag, George Morrison, and Rob Roy Kelly. In 1959, the school became one of the first accredited art schools in America. In 1970, the school changed its name one last time to the Minneapolis College of Art and Design to reflect its professionalism and its coveted bachelor's degrees. A new building designed by architect Kenzo Tange is constructed for the college in 1974, alongside the new Children's Theater Company and additions to the Minneapolis Institute of Arts. In 1988 the College severs its ties with the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts and MCAD and the MIA function as separate entities. In the 1990s the college introduced its first master's program and also started an annual art sale of student work. In the 2000s, I.D. Magazine named the school one of the nation's Top Ten Design Schools.

M/A 2013.04.01-05

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Minneapolis Council for Adult Education

The Minneapolis Council for Adult Education began in 1929. The organization's objectives were to promote education among the adult population of Minneapolis; to collect and keep up-to-date directory information about all agencies in Minneapolis that were giving service in adult education; to serve as a clearing house for information; to formulate plans and policies for supplementing present service in the city; and to give publicity to educational cultural and recreational opportunities that existed in the city. The organization remained highly active through 1937, but struggled to survive into the early 1940s.

M/A 2000.162.01-02

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Minneapolis Council of Parent-Teacher Associations

The purpose of the Minneapolis Council of Parent-Teacher Associations was as follows: “To promote the welfare of children and youth in home, school, church, and community. To raise the standards of home life. To secure adequate laws for the care and protection of children and youth. To bring into closer relation the home and the school, that parents and teachers may cooperate intelligently in the training of the child. To develop between educators and the general public such united efforts as will secure for every child the highest advantages in physical, mental, social and spiritual education.” Membership consisted of teachers and parents across the Minneapolis School District and neighborhoods.

M/A 2000.189.01

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Minneapolis Council of Parent-Teacher Associations: Save our School Campaign (SOS)

The campaign to raise three million dollars to assist the Minneapolis Public Schools in paying their bills was initiated in July 1942. The campaign lasted a little more than one month. The amendment failed.

M/A 2000.171.01

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Minneapolis Council of Women's Organizations

The Minneapolis Council of Women’s Organizations began in April 1892 by women's associations interested in education, literature, art, social reform, and philanthropy. The aim of the Council “shall be to bring the various associations of women of Minneapolis into closer relations through a medium of communication, and assist in prosecuting any work of general interest to the Council or community at large; but no Society entering the Council shall thereby lose its independence in aim or method.” In other words, this organization gave the opportunity for women’s organizations to work and come together in various efforts in the Minneapolis area, but also remain autonomous.

M/A 2000.81.01-02

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Minneapolis Gun Club

Founded in 1875, the Minneapolis Gun Club promoted the sports of trap and skeet shooting, and other various shooting activities. This club competed with other gun clubs both regionally and nationally. The club included men and women and various age groups. The club continues today, promoting the same sport shooting activities.

M/A 2000.11.01

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Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission (HPC)

The Minneapolis Heritage Preservation Commission (HPC) was created in 1972. The City of Minneapolis created this particular commission for preserving the cultural, social, economic, religious, political, and architectural heritage of Minneapolis. Tasks and objectives of the HPC include: advising the City Council, evaluating historic buildings and districts, conducting research for eligible sites, designating sites as local landmarks, designating sites for demolition, providing education programs and outreach programs, creating a plan for preservation, and administering a preservation plan.

M/A 2000.186.01-09

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Minneapolis Institute of Art

In 1883, The Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts was founded. This society, composed of 25 members at the time, would eventually give rise to the Minneapolis Institute of Arts (MIA). In 1911, Clinton Morrison donated the site for which the MIA was to be built upon in memory of his father, Dorilus Morrison. To choose the architect of the building, the Society held a competition led by Professor Laird of Pennsylvania University and the famous New York architectural firm McKim, Mead and White won the contest with their neoclassical building design. The ground-breaking was held in 1913 and the Institute opened its doors on January 7, 1915. In 2015 the museum rebranded becoming Mia (pronounced Mee-ah), replacing the acronym MIA, and the Minneapolis Institute of Art, instead of Arts.

M/A 2013.01.01-12

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Minneapolis Kennel Club

The Minneapolis Kennel Club (MKC) started on October 23, 1933. Their mission: “…further the advancement of all breeds of purebred dogs, to advance the interests of dog shows and obedience trials, and to encourage sportsmanship at such events.” Founding board of directors included Edwin L. Pickhardt, Charles B. Owen, Roger B. Stahn, Paul M. Kroeger, Russell C. Rosenquest, Harold R. Ward, and Maurice L. Baker. The first MKC dog show took place at the Minneapolis Auditorium in downtown Minneapolis on April 21, 1934. Subsequent venues included Ft. Snelling Polo Grounds, 1934; MN State Fair Grounds, 1936; Minneapolis Aquatennial parade grounds, 1941; Minneapolis Radisson Hotel,1947.

The shows, membership, and frequency of events grew as the years went on. Moreover, the MKC expanded into other projects other than dog shows to help promote the well-being and betterment of dog breeds. Some projects include scholarship funds to University of Minnesota students interested in small husbandry programs and donation programs to the Hennepin County Humane Society, American Kennel Club Dog Museum, Canine Defense Fund and other organizations. The MKC functions today and membership includes residents from the Twin Cities metro area.

M/A 2000.08.01-02

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Minneapolis Model City Program

In 1966, in the midst of aggressive inner-city urban renewal projects and urban rioting, the Johnson administration devised a community-driven urban renewal policy through the newly-created Housing and Urban Development (HUD) Department. In 1967, the "Model Cities" program gave $11 million in grants to 65 projects in 63 cities across the country that ranged in size from New York City to Pikeville, Kentucky.

The Model Cities Program sought to improve urban neighborhoods by involving residents throughout the planning, implementation, and evaluation process. Minneapolis selected a large portion of south central Minneapolis as its "Model Neighborhood Area." The program sought to address physical problems, such as substandard housing and deterioration, as well as social problems in education, heathcare, and other social services. Particularly in the initial planning process and in its final evaluations, the program recieved mixed reviews from local and national media. With constant cuts to funding, the program realized a fraction of its original goals, yet it ushered a new generation of urban leaders, especially those from communities of color.

Part of a larger urban renewal plan that included projects in north Minneapolis, the Gateway District, Como, and the St. Anthony-Main neighobrhoood, the "Model Neighborhood" project covered 3.9 square miles and several of the city's major instutitions, industries, shopping districts, and parks. Its borders were: Lyndale Avenue to the West; Franklin Avenue, 3rd Avenue S, 16th Street, Marquette Avenue, Fifth Avenue, Fifteenth Street, Portland Avenue, and Seventeenth Street to the north; Hiawatha Avenue to the east; and 32nd Street, 15th Avenue, and 36th Street to the South. Residents of the Central, Corcoran, Lyndale, Phillips, Powderhorn Park, Ventura Village, and Whittier neighborhoods all participated in the program.

M/A 2000.179.01-07

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Minneapolis Moline Power Implement Company


The Minneapolis Moline Power Implement Company started in 1929. A merger between the Moline Plow Co. (est. 1852), Minneapolis Threshing Co. (est. 1887), and the Minneapolis Steel and Threshing Co. (est. 1902) prompted the creation of Minneapolis Moline Power Implement Company. Warren C. Macfarlane, the future president of the company, led the merger negotiations. The company’s factory operations began in south Minneapolis, near Lake Street and Minnehaha Avenue. Minneapolis Moline specialized in the manufacturing of a variety of farm equipment including tractors, combines, threshing machines, tillage tools, shellers, harvesters, manure spreaders, and so on.

At the outbreak of World War II, Minneapolis Moline also took a major role in the war effort. In 1940, the company created the “Jeep,” which saw significant use by the U.S. Army. During the same year, the company opened a new factory in Hopkins, Minnesota, and manufactured massive amounts of munitions and military equipment to both the U.S. Army and U.S. Navy., which continued through the duration of the war.

Minneapolis Moline continued to do well into the 1950s, especially with the creation of a number of highly popular harvester machines. Despite this success, however, the profitability and demand for mass produced farm equipment began to wane into the l960s. In 1962, the White Motor Company of Lansing, Michigan merged with Minneapolis Moline, and set an agenda of manufacturing trucks instead of farm equipment. Much of the manufacturing capital of the company became obsolete or unneeded with this move, and the White Motor Company failed to find subtenants to fill this void. This brought sudden decline to the company as a whole. In 1972, the Minneapolis plant closed and the following year torn down, ending the Minneapolis Moline legacy.

M/A 2000.157.01

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Minneapolis Newspaper History, Compiled by Dorothy Burke

Dorothy Burke was born in Minneapolis, MN on December 8, 1917. She was responsible for helping form the Minneapolis History Collection at the Minneapolis Public Library and acted as its curator for many years. After retiring from her position, she volunteered with the Hennepin County Historical Society and performed much of the cataloging and reorganization work needed after its renovation in the mid-1980s. She died on November 20, 1992 in Saint Louis Park, MN.

M/A 1994.11.01

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Minneapolis Poetry Society and the League of Minnesota Poets

The League of Minnesota Poets was founded by Clara A. Clausen, Irl Morse and Marie d’Autremont Gerry in 1934. In 1934, Margarette Ball Dickson became the first poet Laureate for the state of Minnesota. The first officers for this society were Margarette Ball Dickson, Robert Cary, Mary Pierre Boucher, Clara A. Clausen, and Maude C. Schilplin. The League of Minnesota Poets published a yearbook annually. In 1937 this yearbook was renamed the “Moccasin Annual”. Today the “Moccasin Annual” is simply called “The Moccasin”. The League of Minnesota Poets is still an active organization today. Annual membership cost twenty dollars. The league has holds poetry contests and academic conferences for its members.

One of the founders and most well-known members of the league was Clara A. Clausen. Clara was well-known as a poet in her native Ohio before moving to Minnesota. She wrote several books on writing techniques including, “Steps in Creative Poetry” and “Suggestions for the Writer of Verse”. She often gave lectures on writing and had a large following of correspondence students. She worked as an instructor of adult education in Brainerd, Minnesota.

Another well-known member of the league was Alice “Ruth” Sherman. Mrs. Sherman was a graduate of Emerson College in Boston Massachusetts. She wrote and starred in many radio and television commercials in the Twin Cities. She also had her own radio show called the “Mixing Bowl”. She published under the pen name, Alice O’Connell Sherman. She had a column in the Star Tribune for many years.

M/A 2000.16.01-02

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Minneapolis Press Club

The Minneapolis Press Club was founded in 1882. The club was open to all persons connected with the editorial or reportorial departments of any daily or weekly newspaper published in Minneapolis. The purpose of the club was the "mutual benefit and the promotion of a fraternal feeling,-- a social club to aid in their professional and private lives. Meetings were held monthly on the first Sunday of each month and monthly dues were $.50.

M/A 2014.02.01

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Minneapolis Social Club

The Minneapolis Social Club, originally known as the Lonesome Club, was organized in September 1924 as a dance group for middle-aged men and women who enjoyed "old-time music." Membership was restricted to people over 28 years old and a lifetime membership cost one dollar.

The club was formally incorporated in 1937. Its stated nature was to "the promotion of sociaibility and friendship among people of middle age who are eligible for membership." It was known for holding regular dances, card parties, picnics, and other similar social functions.

By the late 1960s and 1970s, membership was in decline and the club's regular dances had been discontinued in favor of occasional card playing. Many of the club's officers were in advanced age and wanted to resign their positions. In February 1973, the club's officers officially disbanded the club.

M/A 2000.17.01

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Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts

To humble beginnings, the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts was founded in 1883 by 25 professional and business leaders at the time, fourteen men and eleven women. In the beginning they owned six works of art and were housed in one room in the newly built Minneapolis Public Library. The Society's primary duty was to develop an art culture in the city and present exhibitions, but they dreamed of a greater "temple for art and music" that would include galleries, a school, and an orchestra hall. The Society founded the Minneapolis School of Fine Arts in 1886, which was also initially housed in the library building. The school would later change its name to the Minneapolis College of Art and Design.

By 1911 the Society's members had raised enough funds to build their own building, which was planned to be built in stages. In 1915, the central part of the new Minneapolis Institute of Arts building was finished and the Society, both its art gallery and school, moved into their new home. In 1965, the Society added a third organization, the Children's Theatre Company, which was given its own theatre in the 1970s expansion of the Society of Fine Arts Park.

The Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts was the umbrella organization of the MIA, MCAD, and Children's Theater Company, all housed on the Society of Fine Arts Park. The Children's Theater Company separated itself from the Society in 1975. They continued to take charge of the MIA and MCAD until 1987, when they divided their money and staff amongst the two and gave them free reign to run the college and the museum as they saw fit, essentially dissolving the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts.

M/A 2013.02.01-06

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Minneapolis Writers Workshop

The Minneapolis Writers Workshop was a byproduct of a Works Progress Administration (WPA) program. One of the programs formulated by Harold Ickes, Director of the WPA, was to write guidebooks for each of the 48 states in the Union. To accomplish this, the Minnesota office was instructed to hire 120 writers from the state relief rolls. Only one published author was found, Meridel LeSeur, plus one poet and two reporters. The others hired were people whose connection to the written word was tenuous: a typist from the newspaper, an English teacher, a classified ad seller, and 50 recently graduated English majors.

The club initially met weekly at the Minneapolis Public Library or the 620 Club on Hennepin Avenue. Its members included a variety of writers, journalists, and academics from the Twin Cities area who published work ranging from science fiction and romance novels to historical non-fiction and magazine articles. In 1972 the club was formally incorporated. Later meetings were held at the Minnesota Press Club and the Regency Plaza Hotel; and as of 2012, they were being held the Black Forest Inn.

M/A 1996.01

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Minnehaha Thursday Club (Minnehaha Mentor Club)

The founding date for this women’s club is unknown. The club was originally named the Minnehaha Mentor Club. In 1926, the name was changed to the Minnehaha Thursday Club. Meetings were held at the member’s homes on every first and third Thursdays of each month.

The earliest known officers include Mrs. L. R. Deininger, president, Mrs. L. J Petit, Vice-President, Mrs. E. P. Seidel, secretary and Mrs. s. a. Burnell, Treasurer. Members of the program committee include Miss Florence Adams, Mrs. L. R. Deininger, Mrs. WM. Lattimore, and Paul A. Petit.

Themes of study for this group range from child culture, government, modern Europe, women, Mexico, Americans and other miscellaneous topics. This club is known to have existed from 1923-1968.

M/A 2000.18.01

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Minnehikers (Minneapolis Municipal Hikers)

The Minnehikers or the Minneapolis Municipal Hiking Club was founded in December of 1919, by Mr. Theodore Wirth the Superintendent of Parks. The club was created as an informal walking club whose main purpose was to acquaint people with the parks and trails in Minneapolis. The hiking area soon extended to the surrounding town and counties.

The first president of the club was Mr. Ross Gordon. The first official officers of the club included Mr. Donald M. Patterson, Mr. Henry Sagmoen, Edna Eckstrom, Mr. George Shekels, Mr. Carl M. Johnson, Ella Knapp, Peggy Farver, Madelyn Woehing, Mrs. Aimee Meldahl, Mr. Al. Mangney, Dorothea Nelson and Mr. Ray Crawford.

In 1925, the Minnehikers began to publish a monthly newsletter. Their mailing list soon surpassed their budget and they were forced to charge fifty cents per year for the publication. However, free copies of the newsletter were still available at the hikes and at their office. In 1926 the club decided to charge a yearly fee of two dollars per member. In 2010 the club charged a membership fee of fifteen dollars per year. The club supplemented its income by holding banquets and other entertainment events.

The Minnehikers continued to be an active walking club within Minnesota until 2010. They sponsored two or three hikes per week within Minneapolis. Destination hikes were also an important part of the club--hiking trips were planned at various scenic locations throughout the United States and Canada.

M/A 2000.03.01-04

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Minnesota Artists' Association

The Minnesota Artists' Association was founded in 1937 by a group of 12 artists, struggling to make it through the depression. The organization's constitution states that "the purpose of this organization shall be to promote the welfare of Minnesota artists and, in general, to encourage the active arts in Minnesota, and more specifically to hold periodical exhibitions; to exert influence towards the purchase of Minnesota art by contacting individuals and civic groups, municipal and otherwise; to promote such legislation as will benefit the arts in Minnesota; to co-operate with other organization having similar ideals and purposes; and finally, to encourage a spirit of professional co-operation between individual members." The assocaiton continues to actively promote Minnesota artists and their art. Their web site states that "Over the years, the MAA has evolved into an organization which assists and promotes artists working in all media: oil painting, watercolor, acrylic, gouache, pastel and collage as well as drawing, photography, sculpture and hand-pulled prints."

M/A 2000.19.01-06

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Minnesota Civil Liberties Union

The Minnesota Civil Liberties Union was founded in 1952 with the stated goal of protecting the civil liberties of Minnesotans through legislation, Education, and political lobbying. This was done in order to guard against legislation that would impact the civil liberties and civil rights of the citizens of Minnesota. This led them to take the cases of people with both popular and unpopular views. However it was not the views of their clients that were seen as important, but the possible violation of their legal rights. They incorporated in August of 1967.

This collection deals with material from 1962 until 1997. During this time they took a number of cases from individuals and orgainzations that felt their rights had been threatened. This included cases relating to: opposition to the draft during the Vietnam War, denial of legal council to accused criminals, defending the rights of police officers, defending the rights of the people to recieve information, and the seperation of curch and state. These cases were taken up against various people and orgainzations including the University of Minnesota, various cities and school boards in Minnesota, and even the Department of Immigration.

M/A 2000.20.01

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Minnesota Council For Adult Education

The Minnesota Council for Adult Education was founded in 1919 as the Minnesota State Americanization Council. It was originally conceived to provide education to recent immigrants so they could better integrate. At first various educational, state, and religious leaders used it as a way to implement an organized state wide Americanization process. However, after the first decade, the council began to recognize the educational needs of all adults. In 1929 they voted to broaden their mission, and met for the first time as the Minnesota Council for Adult Education in May of 1930.

With the broadening of their constituency their educational mission also broadened. The issues of adult higher education, educational psychology, the use of radio in education, and other issues began to come to the fore. Things moved slowly during the first few years after the name change, but began to pick up in 1932. Due to the large number of unemployed people with leisure time, the council attempted to create an emergency program. Educators and leaders in other fields met to discuss ways to bring adult education to every corner of every county in Minnesota. A formation of community councils was proposed to school superintendents in 1933. These councils would represent various educational interests in their localities. However, this plan was scrapped in favor of a federal plan which provided money for work relief projects.

During the Second World War the council became less active. There was still a feeling by many though that there should be some organization to support adult education. To this end they kept their name and merged with the Minneapolis Council for Adult Education in 1944. Combined the groups continued to be active for the cause of adult education throughout the state.

M/A 2000.163.01-02

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Minnesota Federation of Women's Clubs

The Minnesota Federation of Women's Clubs (M.F.W.C.) was founded on April 25, 1895. Initially, fifteen clubs from around the state comprised the M.F.W.C. By the 1940s, the Federation had grown to include 40,000 members and 500 clubs. The M.F.W.C. was divided into ten smaller district branches, corresponding to the congressional districts of Minnesota. Members participated in social service, public health, legislation, community service, industrial, and conservation work. They lobbied for better forestry laws, worked to establish vocational schools for boys and girls, and started rural libraries across the state. Notable members included Margaret Evans Huntington of Northfield, Minnesota (the M.F.W.C.'s first president) and Alice Ames Winter (also known as Mrs. Thomas G. Winter, president of the General Federation of Women's Clubs from 1921-1924).

M/A 2000.21.01

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Minnesota Federation of Women's Clubs, Fifth District

The Fifth District of the Minnesota Federation of Women's Clubs (M.F.W.C.) was organized in 1897. The organization evolved from the Woman's Council in Minneapolis, which was established in 1886. The Fifth District became the arm of the larger M.F.W.C. that included Minneapolis, and it was the first district in Minnesota to officially federate. Beginning in the late 19th century, personal growth and education were considered by some to be of the utmost importance for women's advancement and this led to the creation of women's clubs. By the 1920s, the Fifth District included over 100 individual clubs, most of which were study clubs. Charity, civic work, education, and suffrage were among the endeavors of the Fifth District. They sent petitions to city council seeking improved water supply, tried to abolish forms of gambling in the city, and supported education and local organizations for boys and girls. Aside from the meetings of individual clubs, the Fifth District held District meetings throughout Minneapolis in hotels, churches, libraries, and homes of various members. Many members were also involved at the state and national levels of the Federation of Women's Clubs and attended larger conventions around the country. Notable members include Mrs. T. B. Walker, Martha C. Wells (also known as Mrs. Cyrus W. Wells, District president 1907-1909, founding member of the M.F.W.C., and M.F.W.C. historian), Mrs. Henry F. Brown (first president of the Fifth District 1897-1899), Emma S. Coan (also known as Mrs. J. P. Coan, Fifth District historian from 1925-1937), and Mabel Crinkley (also known as Mrs. M. A. Crinkley, Fifth District historian after Coan's death).

M/A 2000.22.01-05

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Minnesota Infantry Regiment, 13th

The 13th Minnesota Volunteer Infantry was a regiment formed to fight during the Spanish-American War. It was one of three Minnesota regiments mustered during the war (along with the 12th and the 14th), though it was the only Minnesota regiment to actually be deployed overseas and see combat during the war. The regiment consisted of 50 officers and 979 enlisted men.

The 13th Minnesota left Camp Ramsey, St. Paul on May 16th, 1898. It traveled by train to San Francisco for further training at Camp Merrit. On June 26th they set sail abroad the City of Para bound for Manila, landing on August 7th.

On August 13th the regiment took part in the Battle of Manila, sustaining the heaviest casualties of any unit in the attack and helping American forces capture the city. Unbeknownst to the soldiers involved, a peace treaty had actually been signed between Spain and the United States the day prior. After the Battle of Manila the 13th served as a police unit in Manila, repelling an attack by Filipino revolutionary troops in February 1899. They would later campaign across the island of Luzon from March through May of 1899.

On August 10th the unit boarded the Sheridan for the journey home. In all, 74 men were wounded and 44 were killed during the regiment's time in service. On October 12th the unit arrived home to a reception at the Minnesota State Capital attended by thousands of well-wishers, family members, and even President William McKinkley along with members of his cabinet.

M/A 2000.55.01

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Minnesota League of Building, Loan and Savings Associations

The Minnesota League of Building, Loan, and Savings Associations was an affiliate of the United States Building and Loan League, a advocacy group formed in 1893. The group's original mission was to promote home ownership through local thrift banking institutions. During the Great Depression, the league became an advocate for deposit insurance and other consumer banking protections.

What was the United States Building and Loan League underwent numerous name changes and mergers with other similar groups throughout the 20th and early 21st century. In 2007, the group's successor organization called America's Community Bankers merged with another large banking advocacy group called the American Bankers Association.

M/A 2000.24.01

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Minnesota Opera

The Center Opera Company was founded in 1963 when the Walker Art Center Commissioned an opera for its performing arts program. In its early years the opera company was known for its alternative and progressive programming. The company avoided star singers, instead focusing on singer-actors. They were admired for commissioning new works and their policy of presenting "opera without elephants." H. Wesley Balk was with the company from 1965-1984 and was known for his radical interpretations of opera classics. One memorable performance was Donizetti's "Lucia di Lammermoor'' in which Balk placed heroine Lucia in a cage. The audience's response was to boo, Balk responded to the crew backstage, "I know they're awake!"

The company became the Minnesota Opera in 1973. Locations of early productions included the Guthrie Theater, O'Shaughnessy Auditorium, Hennepin Methodist Church and the Prom Ballroom. In 1975 the Minnesota Opera merged with the St. Paul Opera and through the 1980s began to put on more traditional productions.

Stuck between its earlier identity as an avant-garde company and its embrace of more traditional operas, the company began a turnaround in 1986 when Kevin Smith was named general director. Smith made Dale Johnson the director of artistic planning. Johnson had an ear for new young singers and the quality and consistency of productions climbed during Smith's tenure. The dramatically intense 1990 production of "Carmen" was the breakthrough production of the new era. In 1987 there were 1,200 subscribers to the opera, by 1997 there were 6,600.

In 1985 the Minnesota Opera became a founding tenant of the Ordway Theater in St. Paul. The company continues to have a presence in Minneapolis at the Minnesota Opera Center, located at 620 North First Street in the Warehouse District of Minneapolis.

M/A 2008.01.01-03

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Minnesota Orchestra

Emil Oberhoffer founded the Minnesota Orchestra under the name, The Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra in 1903. Their first concert was held on November 5th of that year. At first, the Orchestra did not have a permanent home so they travelled around to perform. In 1907, the Orchestra played its first regional tour and in 1912 they made their New York debut at Carnegie Hall, a location they continue to visit regularly. The Orchestra started holding performances in the Northrop Memorial Auditorium at the University of Minnesota Campus in 1929. In 1968 the Orchestra changed its name to the Minnesota Orchestra and in 1974 they moved into their very own concert space, Orchestra Hall, at 1111 Nicollet Mall. In addition to Minneapolis performance venues, the Minnesota Orchestra has performed many world tours, traveling to Australia, Europe, Canada, the Far East, Latin America, and the Middle East.

M/A 2012.24.01-11

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Minnesota Twins

Amateur baseball is a proud tradition in Minnesota and remains active throughout the state. Even so, most of baseball's spotlight has been focused on the major league since 1961. Major League Baseball granted Minneapolis an extension team in 1960. Instead of creating the extension team in Minnesota, the Washington (D.C.) Senators were transferred to Minnesota upon Washington owner Calvin Griffith's request. The extenstion team was formed in Washington, D.C. The name "Twins" was carefully deliberated to encompass both Minneapolis and St. Paul without favoritism and hopeful of widespread support, inclusive of the "Twin" Cities. Minnesota was enthusiastic about the new team even though its years in Washington had not been exceptional. Great players emerged in these early years of Minnesota Twins baseball, including Bob Allison; Baseball Hall of Famers Harmon Killebrew and Rod Carew; Tony Oliva, American League's 1964 Rookie of the Year; and Zoilo Versalles, American League's 1965 Most Valuable Player. The Minnesota Twins won the American League Pennant in 1965. The team went to the World Series in 1965 but lost to the Los Angeles Dodgers.

In the first decade of the twenty-first century, the Twins compiled the longest streak of consecutive winning seasons since moving to Minnesota. This period also marks controversy over talk of relocation of the team to a different city. Because of the financial weaknesses the team faced in relation to other teams in the league, discussions circulated about moving the Twins to a different city, threatening to end major league baseball in Minnesota. A contributing issue in these debates was the stadium that the Twins played in, the Hubert H. Humphrey Metrodome. Public and private support came to the Minnesota Twins to build a new, outdoor stadium that would be used only for baseball and have natural turf. The inaugural game was played in Target Field on April 12, 2010. Prior to that, the Metrodome had served as the Twins' stadium from 1982. Previous to the Metrodome, the Metropolitan Stadium had been the Twins' home field since their inception in 1961.

M/A 2013.06.01-08

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Mitchell, John H.

John H. Mitchell, Jr. was born ca. 1878. Mitchell was initially a schoolteacher who taught in Hennepin County and Anoka during the late 1890s. In 1898 he began working in advertising for Wyman, Partridge Co. in Minneapolis. Several years later he took up the position of advertising manager for the Powers Dry Goods Company in St. Paul.

In 1903 he founded the Mitchell Advertising Agency. His firm went on to work on advertising for a variety of companies including Munsingwear, Toastmaster, Anacin, Minneapolis-Moline, Pure Oil and the Waterman-Waterbury Co. His firm eventually gained a reputation specifically for handling accounts related to heating equipment and furnaces. It appears to have dissolved at some point during the late 1950s. Mitchell died in 1963.

M/A 1994.34.01-02

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Mitropoulos, Dimitri

Dimitri Mitropoulos was born in Athens, Greece on February 18th, 1896. He was musically precocious, demonstrating his abilities at an early age. He entered the Athens Conservatory at the age of 14, excelling at both piano and composition. Mitropoulos had originally entered training to become a monk in the Greek Orthodox church, however decided against it when he learned that he would not be allowed to keep an instrument in his cell.

From 1921 to 1925 he assisted Erich Kleiber at the Berlin State Opera. He also took a number of posts in Greece, including conductor of the Athens Conservatory Orchestra in 1924. He made his U.S. debut in 1936 with the Boston Symphony Orchestra. From 1937 to 1949, he served as the principal conductor of the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra (now known as the Minnesota Orchestra). Mitropoulos's tenure was regarded as a golden age for the orchestra. His style of directing was passionate and energetic, using gestures instead of a baton and memorizing all of his scores instead of referencing a printed one. He performed more contemporary compositions than his predecesors had, to the delight of some and the chagrin of others. His resignation in 1949 was front page news in local newspapers. Thereafter he began his association with the New York Philharmonic, the peak of his orchestral career. In 1957 he was succeeded as the Philharmonic's conductor by a protégé, Leonard Bernstein.

In addition to his orchestral career, Mitropoulos was an equally important force in the operatic repertoire. He conducted opera extensively in Italy and from 1954 until his death in 1960 was the principal conductor of the Metropolitan Opera in New York, although the Met did not officially use that title at the time.

Mitropoulos died of heart failure in Milan, Italy on November 2, 1960.

M/A 1998.52.01

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Mondale, Walter

Walter Frederick ("Fritz") Mondale was born on January 5, 1928 in Ceylon, Minnesota. Mondale graduated from the University of Minnesota in 1951 and briefly served in the US Army during the Korean War before returning to Minnesota and graduating from University of Minnesota's law school in 1956.

In 1960 Mondale was appointed as Minnesota's Attorney General by Governor Orville Freeman. Despite his relatively short career in law, Mondale had been politically active with Minnesota's Demoractic-Farmer-Labor party and had helped with Freeman's 1960 campaign for governor. He was re-elected Attorney General in 1962. In 1964 Mondale was again appointed to higher office, being named by Governor Karl Rolvaag as Minnesota's junior senator (replacing Hubert H. Humphrey who had been elected as vice-president that year). Mondale served the remainder of Humphrey's term and was re-elected twice in 1966 and 1972, serving on a variety of different committees and task forces during his time.

In 1976 Mondale was elected vice president to President Jimmy Carter. Mondale was a more active vice president than his predecessors, traveling extensively within the US as well as abroad to build support for Carter's policies. Carter and Mondale were re-nominated for the 1980 election, however they were roundly defeated by Ronald Reagan. Mondale briefly returned to a law career before running again as the Democratic nominee for president in 1984. After winning the nomination Mondale named Geraldine Ferraro his vice-presidential running mate, the first woman to run for that office with a major political party. Mondale ran on a strongly liberal platform, speaking out against nuclear weapons and Reagan's economic policies and supporting the Equal Rights Amendment and women's rights. Mondale went on to lose the 1984 election to Ronald Reagan in one of the most lop-sided electoral defeats in US history.

Mondale returned to a career in law but was appointed to a number of government panels and committees during the 1980s and 1990s. During the Clinton administration Mondale served as U.S. Ambassador to Japan from 1993 to 1996, as the chair of a campaign finance reform group, and briefly served as a special envoy to Indonesia. Mondale also taught at the University of Minnesota's Hubert H. Humphrey School of Public Affairs and remained active on a number of prominent corporate and non-profit boards of directors.

M/A 1994.35.01

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Monday Club

The Monday Club was founded in 1882 by Mr. and Mrs. Arthur Von Schlegell as a club for discussing social, historical, and literary topics. Among its founding members were Mrs. Daniel Fish, Mrs. Cyrus W. (Martha) Wells, and Mrs. H. C. Carlyle. Many other prominent early citizens of Minneapolis participated in the club as well.

The club met biweekly (on Mondays) from roughly October through April of each year. Each year's program featured a different theme and each meeting explored a different topic related to that theme through lectures and presentations. They were also known for holding annual banquets on or near New Year's Eve.

M/A 2000.28.01

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Monday Study Club

The Monday Study Club was founded in 1914. Each year a topic of study was chosen. Members hosted meetings at their homes on a rotating schedule. The club met on alternate Mondays at 1pm from October – May. Membership was initially limited to 15 people, but over time as many as 18 people were active members.

M/A 2000.29.01

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Morningside Woman's Club

Morningside Woman’s Club was organized in 1937. The club was previously known as the Morningside Literary Club.

In addition to the Regular club, the club was also divided into sections for specialized study. These sections held separate luncheons once a month. The section included an Art and Music Section, a Civic Section, a Domestic Arts Section, a Drama and Literature Section, a Garden Section, a Human Relations Section, and a Study Section.

Membership was limited to 100 women. Members had to reside in the Morningside neighborhood (some non-residents who were members before this rule took effect were exempt from this requirement).

The object of the club was to stimulate intellectual and moral development, to promote good fellowship among its members and to strength their individual effort for humanity by efficient organization.

M/A 2000.33.01

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Mull, Margaret

Margaret Mull was involved in the Minneapolis library system for 42 years starting in 1931. She graduated from the University of Minnesota and began her career as an assistant librarian at the Hosmer Branch. In 1951 she moved to the circulation department of the Minneapolis Main Library. Seven years later in 1958 she became Chief of the Minneapolis Central Library. She also served as acting chief of the Minneapolis Library system for 15 months from 1963-1964. During this time she helped to stabilize a library system that had been rocked by budget cuts. She retired in 1973 after holding the position of Chief of Community Library Services.

During her time at the library she attempted to champion programs involving cultural outreach, and promoting reading for pleasure. She was well respected in the Minneapolis Library System for her frankness and openness with her colleagues. Also she was not afraid to help with the day to day work of the library. On many occasions she would help library pages with opening procedures in the morning.

Furthermore, she was a member of the Council of the American Library Association, as well as Chairman of the Minnesota National Library Week Committee. Also she served as Women's Director of the Minneapolis Chamber of Commerce Cultural Activities Committee, and board member of Minneapolis People to People. In 1964 she was named as Minnesota Librarian of the Year. She was the first to receive this honor. Mull passed away in 1990 at the age of 80.

M/A 1998.41.01

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Myers-Nelson Family

Beverly June Myers-Nelson was born in Minneapolis, Minnesota October 4, 1924 and died in Rochester, Minnesota May 26, 1951 while undergoing treatment for a heart ailment at the Mayo Clinic.

She attended Kenwood grad school, Northrup Collegiate School for girls; later graduating from the Los Angeles Junior High and West High School in Minneapolis. She completed all of the twelve grades in religious Education at the Cathedral Church of St. Mark, graduating with honors. She was confirmed in the Episcopal church although attended the Catholic church on many occasions with her husband who was of that faith.

She attended the University of Minnesota and the University of Texas, qualifying for pre-medical school at Texas U. She was an active member of the Drama Club and took part in other student activities. After completing about four years of University studies she decided to quit school and was married to Eugene Ross Nelson on April 15, 1947 and resided with her busband at Tonka Bay, Excelsior, Minnesota until the time of her death. [From the preface to the collection of poems]

Leslie W. Myers was born in Webb City, Mo, in 1894 and attended the University of Minnesota. Educated in optometry, Myers later joined the N.P. Benson Co. (later Benson optical), eventually rising to become chairman of the board. Myers was an avid collector of antique eyeware. He also served on the Board of the Hennepin History Museum.

M/A 2014.10.01

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Naftalin, Arthur

Arthur Naftalin was the Mayor of Minneapolis from 1961-1969. Naftalin was born in 1917 in Fargo North Dakota, and was one of four children. He traveled to Minneapolis to attend college at the University of Minnesota and received a Bachelors Degree from the School of Journalism in 1939 followed by a Ph.D. in 1948. It was here that he met his future wife Frances Healy whom he married in 1941.

Naftalin worked on Humphrey's unsuccessful 1943 campaign for Mayor of Minneapolis as his publicity director. He also served as State Publicity Director for the Minnesota DFL party in 1944, and again worked for Humphrey in his successful 1945 campaign. After this Humphrey would appoint Naftalin as his secretary. He would continue to be very active in the Minnesota DFL party, and was considered one of their best strategists. While he was involved in politics he was also active at the University of Minnesota, and became a Professor in the department of Political Science. Later in 1954 he was appointed by Governor Orville Freeman as the State Commissioner of Administration.

In 1961 Naftalin was elected Mayor of Minneapolis beating out P. Kenneth Peterson. He would serve as mayor for four terms until 1969 when he decided not to seek re-election. During his time as Mayor his policies attempted to: improve urban areas, create new zoning ordinances, reform welfare programs, strengthen law enforcement, reduce juvenile delinquency, protect housing for the elderly, and reach out across racial boundaries.

After his terms as Mayor Naftalin returned to the University to work as a professor in the Department of Public affairs. Arthur Naftalin passed away on May 16, 2003 due to complications from a blow to the head sustained during a fall.

M/A 1998.08.01-03

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National League of American Pen Women, Minnesota Branch

The National League of American Pen Women was founded in 1897. Marian Longfellow O'Donohue, niece of Henry Wadsworth Longfellow, decided to found an organization for women journalists. Assisted by Margaret Sullivan Burke and Anna Sanborne Hamilton, Marian Longfellow O'Donohue made plans for "bringing together women journalists, authors, and illustrators for mutual benefits and the strength that comes of union."

The Minnesota branch was organized with twelve charter members in 1927. This organization of women included artists in many creative fields. Besides those who wrote novels, poetry, drama, radio scripts, etc., there were artists in every medium, designers, composers of music, lecturers and research workers in many fields.

M/A 1995.01.01-12

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National Society of New England Women, Minneapolis Colony

The National Society of New England Women was organized in New York City in 1895 by Mrs. William Gerry Slade. In June 1906, at the biennial meeting of the Federation of Women’s Clubs, the President and Secretary of the National Society of New England Women approached the state president of Minnesota Women’s Clubs about having a colony organized in Minneapolis. The state president of Minnesota Women’s Clubs requested that Mrs. S. R. Child to assist her in creating a colony in Minnesota, presumably because of Mrs. S. R. Child’s New England heritage. On October 31, 2906, seventeen women attended the organizational meeting in the director’s room of the state library.

The object of the Minneapolis Colony of the National Society of New England Women was to “perpetuate the memory of illustrious New Englanders; to bind together by ties of common interest women born in New England or of New England ancestry; to aid and encourage New England women who may be in need; and to instill into the hearts of the rising generation love for and pride in New England history”. Each year, a theme for study was selected. Meetings were held on the third Friday of the month from September-May.

M/A 2000.35.01

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Nature Study Club

The Nature Study Club was organized in 1901 and was federated in 1903. The object of the club was “to pursue some course of study” and “to promote social relations” Meetings were held on the second and fourth meeting of the month from September through May. Meetings were typically hosted by members at their homes on a rotating schedule. Membership was limited to 25 people.

M/A 2000.36.01

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Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NRP)

In 1988, the Neighborhood Housing and Economic Task Force of Minneapolis completed a report in response to growing concerns about the perception of neighborhood decline in the City. As a solution, this report proposed a 20 year Neighborhood Revitalization Program (NRP) which would provide a flexible approach for neighborhoods and residents to partner with government to strategically plan for the future of their communities. After approval from the Minnesota State Legislature and the Minneapolis City Council in 1990, funding equal to $20 million a year for 20 years was established to support the projects of the NRP.

The goals established by the NRP Policy Board in 1990 were: Build neighborhood capacity; redesign public services; increase inter-governmental and intra-governmental collaboration; and create a sense of community. By empowering neighborhood residents to think and work strategically to set the priorities in their communities, the NRP hoped to create innovative plans and revitalize the City from within.

In February 1991, six neighborhoods were selected to begin work on their Neighborhood Action Plans. Eventually all Minneapolis neighborhoods were invited to participate in the planning process. To assist with the planning process, NRP provided neighborhood representatives with workshops, guidelines, procedures and other training materials. Additionally, within the NRP organization, Neighborhood Specialists were assigned to specific neighborhoods to provide detailed guidance to neighborhood associations and organizations.

NRP funding continued as planned through 2001, when revisions to the Minnesota state tax code made by the Minnesota State Legislature changed the assessments on commercial and industrial properties along with education funding. The result to NRP was that the projected $180 million in remaining funds through the 20 year completion was lowered to $84 million. Despite this enormous change in projected funding support, NRP projects continued through the full 20 year period. In 2011, the NRP reached the completion of its 20-year lifespan with all outstanding projects moved to be under the management of the Neighborhood and Community Relations division of the City Coordinator's office.

M/A 2012.05.01-29

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New Friends of Chamber Music

New Friends of Chamber Music was organized to promote interest in chamber music by bringing to Minneapolis the outstanding chamber music ensembles of Europe and America and by presenting musicians from the Twin Cities in chamber music programs. They gave concerts, and helped people who wanted to make music in their own homes and education listeners through lectures

New Friends of Chamber Music was organized in 1954 and incorporated on January 4, 1955. By 1957 it had 813 members and its concerts were completely sold out. The Board of Directors included the following people: Paul Segal - President; Theodore Ptashne - Vice-President; Dr. Arnold F. Caswell - Vice-President; Clifton F. Jackson - Treasurer; Robert Kelber - Secretary; Mrs. Cecil Richman - Director; Al Wolf - Director; Thomas Nee - Director; Gerard Samuel - Educational Director; Will Hertz - Publicity

The first concert was presented in February 3, 1955 was by violinist Szymon Goldberg as violin soloist and conductor of a chamber orchestra of 28 musicians. The New Friends of Chamber Music also sponsored Junior Friends of Chamber Music, an activity designated to interest high school students in chamber music playing.

M/A 2000.05.01-04

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Nicollet Mall

In October, 1984, the street known as "Nicollet Avenue" between 10th St. S and W Grant St. was officially designated as "Nicollet Mall." The name was changed to reflect the street's redesign of the 1960s, which converted the bustling downtown street into a curving eight-block shopping promenade.

Planning for the Nicollet Mall began in the late 1950s at a time when many downtown businesses were relocating to the suburbs and retail sales were on the decline. In 1955, a group of downtown property and business owners, retailers, and consultants formed the Downtown Council in order to respond to these changes and to strengthen the downtown community. The council's goals included creating more attractive urban spaces and places and specifically stated that there should be a pedestrian mall on Nicollet Avenue. Studies were conducted and it was suggested that a transit mall would be the best option for Minneapolis. In 1961, landscape architect Lawrence Halprin and transportation consultants Barton-Aschman Associates were hired to design the Mall. Construction began in 1965 and was completed in 1968.

In June 1987, BRW Construction was chosen to update the Nicollet Mall, which was showing its age with broken sidewalks and deteriorating fixtures. The structural overhaul straightened Halprin's curvilinear street path, and introduced new materials, lighting, signage, and art to the space. The Nicollet Mall Implementation Board was formed in 1987 to oversee the Mall's renovation project. The project was completed in 1991 and the board dissolved.

M/A 2014.14.01-04

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Nineteenth Century Club

The Nineteenth Century Club was organized in 1890. The purpose of the club was mutual improvement. Meetings were held alternating weeks from October through April.

M/A 2000.37.01

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Northside Federation

The Northside Federation was founded in 1967. The purpose of the federation was to provide a vehicle through which recommendations can be made and/or actions can be taken on the needs, concerns, and problems of Northside residents and groups. Membership was open to all non-profit neighborhood and community groups whose main objective is community improvement.

M/A 2000.177.01

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Northside Settlement Services, Inc.

The Northside Settlement Services, Inc. provided a variety of services to residents of north Minneapolis. The administration offices of the center were located at 2507 Fremont Avenue North. The purpose of the corporation was to continue and expand the work of the social service agencies on the Minneapolis Northside in order to encourage the growth of community identification, interest, improvement and advancement through working with individuals and public and private groups and to foster the economic, social and educational prospects of the persons living in the community which it served.

The Northside Settlement Services, Inc. was a United Way Agency. In 1984 Northside Settlement Services and Pillsbury United Neighborhood Services merged to form what is now Pillsbury United Communities.

M/A 2000.175.01

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Oak Park Study Club

The Oak Park Study Club was organized in 1895. The motto of the Oak Park Study Club was. Each year a theme for study was chosen. The club gave its members an opportunity to continue their education in such areas as poetry, art and literature. Each year a theme for study was selected. Meetings were held about twice a month from late September through April or May. Members hosted meetings on a rotating schedule.

M/A 2000.42.01

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Oberhoffer, Emil

Emil Johann Oberhoffer was born near Munich, Bavaria on August 10, 1867. His family was musically-inclined and Oberhoffer showed an early affinity for the organ and violin. He studied piano in Paris, France under noted pianist Isidor Philipp.

He emigrated to the United States in 1885 and would later move to Minnesota in 1897. In addition to teaching and lecturing, Oberhoffer found work with a number of local choral groups including the Apollo Club of Minneapolis, the Schubert Choral Association in St. Paul, and the Minneapolis Philharmonic Club. He became frustrated at the quality of the ensembles used as accompanists for these groups, and it is said that this became the catalyst for the establishment of a permanent orchestra in Minneapolis. The Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra gave its first performance, under Oberhoffer's direction, on November 5th, 1903. Oberhoffer built the Minneapolis Symphony Orchestra into a symphony of not only local but regional reknown. He was adamant that touring would not only raise the orchestra's profile but generate a profit--so adamant than he personally underwrote the first three tours from 1907 to 1909.

Oberhoffer left Minneapolis in 1922 after increasing friction with the orchestra's management. Thereafter he held conductor positions with a variety of orchestras including the Los Angeles Philharmonic, San Francisco Symphony, Saint Louis Symphony Orchestra and Detroit Symphony Orchestra.

Emil Oberhoffer died in San Diego on May 22, 1933. He is buried in the Lakewood Cemetery in Minneapolis where the Oberhoffer Obelisk stands in his memory.

M/A 1998.53.01-04

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Oliver Wendell Holmes Club

The Oliver Wendell Holmes Club was organized in 1894 in Minneapolis. The motto of the club was “sapere aude”, a Latin phrase meaning "dare to discern". The club founder was Mrs. Frederick. E. Hobbs. The name of the club was chosen because two of the charter members of the club claimed kinship with Oliver Wendell Holmes. The club gave its members an opportunity to continue their education. Each year a theme for study was selected. Meetings were held at the homes of club members on a rotating schedule.

M/A 2000.43.01

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Ollapodrida Study Club

The Ollapodrida Study Club was organized in April 1921 in Minneapolis by eleven women members of Simpson Church. The club’s name comes from the Spanish phrase “olla podrida” which loosely translates to “hodgepodge”. The club’s motto was “preserve and improve”. The purpose of the club was to serve as a center for inspiration, information, self improvement and happy associations. Membership was limited to 25 members. Meetings were held the second Monday of each month. Members hosted meetings at their homes on a rotating schedule. Food typically was not served at meetings. Rather, the meetings focused on discussing intellectually challenging questions and topics. The club disbanded on June 14, 1965.

M/A 2000.45.01-02

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Olson, Floyd B.

Floyd Bjørnstjerne Olson was born on November 13, 1891 in Minneapolis, MN. He was the son of poor Scandinavian immigrants who settled in north Minneapolis. His checkered education included one year at the University of Minnesota, a stint as a laborer in the Pacific Northwest, and a degree from Northwest Law College. In 1919 the young lawyer was appointed assistant attorney for Hennepin County and soon became county attorney, a position he held for ten years. By the time he was elected the state's first Farmer-Labor Party governor, Olson's reputation as a tough-talking man of the people was sealed, and his skills as a canny politician and radio orator were well honed. He used these qualities to appeal to the rural and, especially, urban poor with his rousing rhetoric while gaining the support of a relatively conservative legislature.

Olson died on August 22, 1936 in Rochester, MN while still in office as governor.

M/A 1998.10.01-03

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Olson, Philip

Philip Olson was born on January 29, 1890. Sgt. Philip Olson served in World War I with the 25th Regiment Engineers. After his enlistment he departed New York for France on October 31, 1918 aboard the transport ship Agamemnon. The journey was not uneventful due to fears about German U-boats, and an accident which involved their ship being rammed.

Upon arrival in France Olson took part in a number of projects including the building of a docks and doing engineering at the front in Verdun. In addition he also had various other duties including working for the supply sergeant, warehouse work, and distributing kit through camp. These duties were performed in a number of locations in France including Brest, Bordeaux, Verdun, and Paris. In addition at the close of the war he was able to take a trip to Monaco and Monte Carlo.

After the signing of the Armistice in November 1918 Olson stayed for a time in France. During this time he and the 25th Engineers aided in construction and rebuilding projects. In March of 1919 Olson returned to the United States by way of New York.

Olson was a member of the Ark Masonic Lodge, Scottish Rite and Zuhrah Shrine temple. His last residence was at the Minnesota Masonic Home. He died on October 31, 1986. He is buried at Lakewood Cemetery.

M/A 2012.01.01

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Olympians Study Club

The Olympians Study Club was organized on February 13, 1913 in Minneapolis by Mrs. Caleb C. Crane. Themes of study were chosen from modern literature, modern drama or current events. Members hosted meetings at their homes on a rotating basis.

M/A 2000.44.01

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Oren, Mabel H.

Mabel Harriet Oren (neé McDonald) was born on July 4th, 1885 in Wisconsin. She later moved to Minneapolis and attended the University of Minnesota, graduating in 1905 with a Bachelor of Arts degree. During the 1930s and 1940s, Oren taught creative writing classes and led a book review group at the Minneapolis Public Library. Many of her students successfully had their works published or bought outright. Oren was also active with other Minneapolis clubs such as the Olympians Study Club. She died on March 15, 1967 in Winter Park, Florida.

M/A 1998.11.01

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Orth, John and Family

John Orth was the first brewer in the Minneapolis/St. Anthony area. His brewery along with 3 other brewers merged in July 1890 to become the Minneapolis Brewing and Malting Company (later Minneapolis Brewing Company and Grain Belt Breweries Inc.). Orth was born in Rott, Alsace in France on May 20, 1821. He learned beermaking in Rott and augmented his skills in Germany, Italy and Spain before emigrating to Erie, Pennsylvania in 1849. Orth met Prussian-born Mary C. Weinell in Erie and they married on August 6, 1849.

Shortly after their marriage, the Orths moved to Galena, Illinois and then on to St. Anthony in July 1850. At the time the only brewer in the region was Anthony Yoerg who started brewing in St. Paul in 1848. John Orth constructed a brewery shortly after he arrived in St. Anthony. The Orth Brewery was located at 1228 Marshall Street NE, nearby where the later Grain Belt Brewery was built. By 1860 Orth Brewing capacity was 1,000 barrels, increasing to 7,000 by the late 1870s. Cold storage was first a beer cave on Nicollet Island and later Orth was one of the first to use ice cellars for lagering beer.

John and Mary Orth had six children: John W., Charles, Sophia, Edward, Virginia, and Alfred. All of the children except Charles lived to adulthood. All of the sons worked at the brewery in some capacity for some duration. In the last years of John's life his sons got more involved in the business as he stepped away, traveling with Mary to Europe and Africa. While in Africa in 1887, John became ill and died en route to Minneapolis in Chicago.

The John Orth Brewery continued as an independent brewer for three more years after the patriarch's death, run by John W. and his two brothers. In the late 1880s British syndicates were taking over U.S. breweries for their investment value. To combat foreign takeover and to reduce comepetion and to inscrease profits, breweries consolidated. In 1890 the Orths, Germania, F.D. Noerenberg and Heinreich brewing merged to become Minneapolis Brewing and Malting. Gluek Brewing Company, founded in 1857, remained independent. The Orth brothers left the business in 1893 to focus on real estate.

M/A 2010.02.01

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Osborn Family

Helen Osborn Cook was a stenographer in 1938 at the Minnesota Soldiers Home where she resided at the time. By 1961 she was residing in Concord, New Hampshire.

M/A 1998.12.01

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Oue, Eiji

Eiji Oue was born October 3, 1957 in Hiroshima, Japan. Oue began piano lessons at a young age and initially worked toward a piano performance degree before becoming interested in conducting. During a summer program at the Tanglewood Music Center Oue met Leonard Bernstein. Bernstein took an interest in Oue and mentored him for some years, giving Oue the opportunity to share the podium with him at a number of major performances throughout Europe.

Oue initially conducted the Erie Philharmonic beginning in 1990 and also acted as the assistant conductor of the Buffalo Philharmonic during the same period. When he was selected as the new conductor of the Minnesota Orchestra in 1993, many critics were surprised at the orchestra's choice of a relative unknown as its new director. He began conducting the Minnesota Orchestra in 1995.

Oue's time with the Minnesota Orchestra proved something of a mixed bag. Some derided him as musically lacking and orchestra attendance declined notably during his tenure. Others lauded to his successes with touring (including the orchestra's first trips to Europe and Japan), his Grammy-nominated recordings with the orchestra, and his dedication to outreach within the community. In 1999, Oue's contract was extended by a year but not fully renewed; Oue's final performance was in May of 2002.

Oue later conducted the Hannover Philharmonic Orchestera, Osaka Philharmonic Orchestra, and Barcelona Symphony Orchestra. He stepped down as the conductor of the Barcelona Symphony Orchestra at the end of 2010.

M/A 1998.54.01

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Outlook Study Club

The Outlook Study Club was organized on March 22, 1929 in Minneapolis. The motto of the Outlook Study Club was “That we may know better our state and the men and women who have contributed to its development”. The purpose of the club was “promote intellectual improvement and sociability among its members”. Membership was initially limited to 16 people, but in 1931 the limit was increased to 24 people. Each year a theme for study was selected. Meetings were held the first Wednesday of the month from September through May. Members hosted meetings at their homes on a rotating basis.

M/A 2000.46.01

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Pabody, Ezra

Ezra Fitch Pabody, (February 21, 1868-December 17, 1940) was a draftsman for Harry Wild Jones and contract manager for American Bridge Company. Ezra began keeping a diary in 1882 when he was 14 years old; the collection includes 7 journals ending in 1890. In 1882, he lived with his parents Ezra and Emma (Brown), his sister Nellie and later his aunt Myra Brown in downtown Minneapolis. Ezra’s father owned a drug store and was active in city mission work with Westminster Church. The journals chronicle everything about his daily life, school, family, church, exercise, nature, and explorations of the city. Ezra and his family are buried at the Lakewood Cemetery in Minneapolis.

M/A 1998.13.01

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Paige, Mabeth Hurd

Mabeth Hurd Paige was born in Newburyport, Massachusetts in 1869 or 1870. She remained in Massachusetts through high school, after which she went on to attend the University of Nebraska at Lincoln, the Massachusetts Art School in Boston, and the Julian Art Academie in Paris, France. After returning to the United States in 1891, she settled in Minneapolis where she began work with the art department in the Minneapolis Public Schools.

In Minneapolis she became acquainted with James Paige, a professor of law at the University of Minnesota, and the two were married in 1895. James encouraged her to pursue a degree in law which Mabeth did, graduating from the University of Minnesota in 1900 and being admitted to the bar shortly thereafter. After law school she was active in a number of social and civic groups. She served as president of the Women's Christian Association from 1910 to 1922, founded the Minnesota chapter of the League of Women's Voters, and was also active with the Urban League, Minnesota Women's Cooperative Alliance, and various state and municipal boards and committees. She was also a delegate to the First International Congress of Women in Rome in 1923 as well as two successive congresses in Paris and Geneva.

In 1922 she ran for the Minnesota State House of Representatives seat for the 30th District (comprising parts of Downtown and North Minneapolis). She was elected and, along with three other women elected that year, became one of the state's first elected female legislators. She caucused with the Republican Party but was described as a "freelance" who was not beholden to a political party. She pursued a number of different legislative initiatives in the areas of public welfare, labor, education, and environmental protection. She served ten consecutive terms, retiring from her seat in 1945.

She suffered a stroke in early 1961 and later died in Minneapolis on August 19, 1961.

M/A 1998.14.01

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Pathfinders Club

The Pathfinders Club was organized on February 14, 1901 in Minneapolis. The object of the club was “intellectual growth and social enjoyment”. Each year a theme for study was selected. Meetings were held on alternate Tuesdays at the homes of members. Originally, the club had eighteen members. Membership was limited to 25 active and 30 associate members.

The club’s civic involvement included establishing scholarship funds, sponsoring a lecture course that brought in guest speakers and doing work on behalf of the Red Cross.

M/A 2000.47.01

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Pattee, William S.

William Sullivan Pattee was born in Maine in 1846. While attending Bowdoin he taught in public schools in Brunswick. He was a professor of Greek at the University of Lake Forrest. In 1874, he became the superintendent of schools at Northfield, MN. While pursuing his career in education, he was studying law, and he was accepted to the bar in 1878. For 10 years, he had a successful career as an attorney and served in the Minnesota House of Representatives in 1884-1885. In 1888, he was named the first dean and faculty member of the University of Minnesota School of Law, a position he held until his death in 1911.

M/A 1998.16.01

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Patton, Willard

Born in Milford, ME, Willard Patton (May 26, 1953 – December 14, 1924) was a musician, teacher and composer. He composed more than 90 works, including songs, operas, choral works, oratorios and cantatas. Coming to Minneapolis in 1883 to teach voice and harmony, Patton was also active in church music. He served at Wesley Methodist as well as St. Mark’s Episcopal and First Baptist Church in various roles. In addition, Patton taught voice culture at Hamline University from 1886-1889. Patton was active in music groups and organizations including the “Filharmonix” music group (later the “Philharmonic Club”), the Minnesota Music Teachers Association, and the Evergreen Club. Patton was married to Alesta Virginia Hebbard of Maine and had one daughter.

M/A 2012.04.01-05

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Peake, Emily, Compiled by Jane Pejsa

Emily Peake was an Ojibwa woman who was born in Minnesota in 1920. She studied history, political science, and psychology at the University of Minnesota, and she received a Bachelor's Degree in 1947. During World War II, she served in the United States Coast Guard. She then spent the majority of her life working for the rights of Indians, especially in Minnesota. As she got older, she directed her focus on aging Indians, and she served for many years on the Minneapolis Board on Aging. She died in Minneapolis in 1995.

Jane Pejsa wrote Emily Peake's biography, "The Life of Emily Peake: One Dedicated Ojibwe", which was published in 2003. This collection consists of her research notes and manuscript materials from this project.

M/A 2005.05.01-03

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Pilot City Regional Center

The Pilot City Regional Center provided a variety of services to residents of north Minneapolis. It was the headquarters for the Pilot City Program, which was created by the city of Minneapolis in 1967. The center was located at 1108 West Broadway.

The Pilot City Program was created as a result of a survey designed by the City of Minneapolis to identify and solve problems in the inner city. The community action program adopted in 1967 based on the results of the survey was called Decision 1967. The city took advantage of federal resources made available through the Neighborhood Services Program initiated by President Lyndon Johnson. “Pilot City Program” was the name of the program submitted to and approved by the federal government.

The policy making board was called Technical Advisory Committee to Implement Community Services (TACTICS) and was composed of 32 elected residents.

The purpose of TACTICS was to help to community of North Minneapolis to mobilize its resource to provide health, legal, social and related services through the establishment and operation of a Pilot City Regional Center and to determine policies and implement the procedures necessary for the coordination of funds to provide financial assistance to the North Minneapolis community for the development, conduct and administration of such a multi-service regional center.

M/A 2000.170.01-06

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Plymouth Congregational Church

Plymouth Congregational Church was organized in 1857 by 18 charter members. The Reverend Norman McLeod acted as pastor. They built their first building in 1858 at Nicollet and Fourth Street. On April 3, 1860, the Reverend Harry Nichols preached a sermon on temperance and that night, the church was destroyed in a fire. A new church building was dedicated in 1863 on the same location. The parish continued to grow and eventually outgrew this building; in 1875, they erected a larger church at Nicollet and Eighth. As the city grew, many parishioners moved southward where no church existed within a mile radius. In 1906 the group decided to build a new Plymouth Church at Nicollet and 19th. In 1909 it was completed and Plymouth Church has been at this location ever since. Many additions (starting with the chapel in 1948) and changes have been made since 1948 to the present day, with a new education wing and other improvements completed in 2007.

In 1937, Park Avenue Congregational Church joined Plymouth. Church membership in 1957 was at 1,955. Today, Plymouth Church maintains many of these activities and promotes itself as a church of liberal theology that provides “mutual encouragement and support for one another’s journeys of faith.”

M/A 2007.01.01-05

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Powell, John W.

Rev. John Walker Powell was born March 22, 1872, in Blue Earth, Minnesota. He became a pastor and served in multiple Minnesota communities. He then worked as a lecturer at the University of Minnesota, teaching classes in English and Biblical literature. He also wrote an unpublished manuscript entitled "Isaiah". In 1940, after spending 50 years at the university, he retired. That spring, he was invited to give the baccalaureate speech to honor his many years of service to the university. He died in 1953 in Minneapolis.

M/A 1998.18.01

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Prospect Park Association (PPA)

The Prospect Park Association (PPA), known as the Prospect Park East River Road Improvement Association (PPERRIA) until 2015, was the first neighborhood association in Minneapolis. Started in 1901 as the Prospect Park Improvement Association (PPIA) as a response to poor streets, sidewalks, signage, lights, gas, and police protection, the association has grown over the decades into the organization it is today with a 40-person volunteer board of directors and strong neighborhood participation. PPA is concerned with the health, safety and general welfare of the neighborhood and promotes the maintenance and improvement of the aesthetic, residential, and physical qualities of the area. PPA discusses concerns regarding block club organizing, zoning, land use changes, schools, taxes, traffic changes, parks, arts, recreation, housing rehabilitation, historic preservation, and the environment.

PPA resides over the Prospect Park neighborhood, located in southeast Minneapolis. The neighborhood is bound by railroad tracks and industrial land to the north, the city boundary between Minneapolis and St. Paul to the east, the Mississippi River to the south, and the University of Minnesota to the west. Some of the earliest residents began settling in the neighborhood in the last half of the 19th century.

M/A 2015.03.01-21

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Prospect Park Study Club

The Prospect Park Study Club (PPSC) was founded in 1896. The club was in the tradition of many other Federation of Women’s Clubs—a study club. The club selected topics of an academic nature and or current interest topic for prepared programs given by their members to the club membership. The members faithfully documented their club’s history. The scrapbooks reflect a strong interest in the Prospect Park neighborhood including its residents and the neighborhood's history.

M/A 2000.02.01-08

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Putnam, Herbert

Consists of a bound volume containing publications, individual tributes, and correspondence celebrating Putnam and his career as Librarian of Congress.

M/A 2014.11.01

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Quist, Peter P.

Quist was born in Sweden in 1854 and came to the United States when he was 10 years old. As an adult, he took great pains to tell the story of his parents and other members of his extended family. He then reproduced these memoirs. He worked as the State Weighmaster, and he was a member of the Grain Dealers National Association, the Terminal Grain Weighmasters National Association, and the Weighmaster and Scales organizations. As a member, he gave numerous addresses to these various national business organizations. He died in Minneapolis in 1939.

M/A 2005.04.01-02

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Ramblers Club

In September 1896 a group of Minneapolis women formed a study club. The general purpose of the club was the advancement of social, educational and benevolent objects. Their plan was to have a travel club to discuss the topography, art, literature, and music of different countries.

In 1912 the club was incorporated and called "The Ramblers". Meetings were held once a week, in the Minneapolis Public Library from September through April. Membership was limited to 40 active and 10 associate members.

The club was involved in many charitable causes including providing entertainment for factory works, serving for the Red Cross, and donating clothes and money those affected by World War I.

M/A 2000.51.01

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Rawlings, General (Ret.) Edwin W.

Edwin W. Rawlings was born in 1905 in Milroy, Minnesota and graduated from Hamline University in St. Paul. After college, he went to work for the Dayton Company before joining the Air Corps Reserve and learning to fly. He spent more than 25 years in the Air Force, and retired in 1959 as a full Air Force General. During his time in the military, he was the first to help organize the office of the Air Force comptroller, and he brought in the first computer for the Air Force and the Defense Department, the UNIVAC. After leaving the service, he joined General Mills and served as chairman from 1967 to 1969. He left an enduring mark on the company, the big G logo used on General Mills cereal boxes and other packaging. In 1987, he published his autobiography, Born to Fly. He died at the age of 93 in 1997.

M/A 1998.20.01

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Reed, Frederick Watson

Frederick Watson Reed was an attorney for the Legal Aid Society and practicing attorney in a Minneapolis law firm. He was considered the Father of the Conciliation Court. He was also instrumental in the development of the Bethel Sunday School, which developed into the Pillsbury Settlement House. He was director of Associated Charities and very involved in the Plymouth Congregational Church. He married Selina Brown, a librarian at the Minneapolis Public Library. They were members of the Saturday Club. After retiring, he wrote a volume of essays on law, democracy, and world conditions, entitled "What Price Freedom?" He died in 1945 at the age of 92.

M/A 1998.21.01

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Reid, Bob

Bob Reid started in the entertainment business while a student at the University of Minnesota and continued in the entertainment business for over 30 years. He worked for Max Winters Attractions (or Enterprises) from the mid 1950s to early 1960s during this time handling the publicity on the Minneapolis Lakers and special events for auto show, baseball, basketball, bowling, football, women's golf, hockey, ice skating, and Polish music. He was general manager for the Metropolitan Sports Center until 1982 when he became marketing director of PR Aids Minneapolis/St. Paul, and then joined VEE Corporation in 1984 which produced and operated Sesame Street Live.

M/A 1998.22.01

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Republican National Convention of 1892

The Republican National Convention of 1892, which took place from June 7 to June 10, was the first national political convention to take place west of the Mississippi. Held at the Industrial Exposition Building, in Minneapolis, the result of the convention was the nomination of the Benjamin Harrison for re-election as President and Whitelaw Reid of New York for Vice President. Harrison lost his bid for re-election and Grover Cleveland succeeded him as President.

The Convention's arrival in Minneapolis was contingent on a suitably sized hall and the availablity of accomodations for delegates and members of the press. The Industrial Exposition Building, built in response to Saint Paul's construction of the state fairgrounds, had seven and half acres of floor space and a total seating capacity of between eleven and fifteen thousand. With construction complete in 1887, the city made a bid for the 1888 Republican Convention, but lost to Chicago. In bidding for the 1892 Convention, the convention committee convinced Chicago not to enter a bid and got Western Union to install more telegraph wires in Minneapolis to support press coverage. The committee's bid was accepted by the Republican national committee on November 23, 1891, and planning went into high gear. The convention drew in about thirty-five thousand people, which was well below the estimated hundred thousand the committee had expected, but in the process of planning for the convention, Minneapolis built up city infrastructure and showed its metropolitan character to the country.

M/A 2011.01.01-03

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Richardson, Theodore J.

Born in Readfield, Maine, Theodore Jerome Richardson grew up in Red Wing, Minnesota. Following high school, he studied at Boston Normal Art School before returning to Minnesota where he instructed in art, penmanship and geometry at Minnesota State Normal College, in Winona. In 1880, Richardson was hired by the Minneapolis Public Schools as superintendent of industrial drawing. Until his arrival, there was no teaching of drawing in the city’s public schools: it is believed to be one of the first art instruction departments in the nation’s public schools. A founding father and charter member of the Minneapolis Society of Fine Arts in 1883, he had his first retrospective posthumously, in 1928. In 1944, the Minneapolis Public Library mounted a show.

Painting primarily with watercolors and pastels, Richardson took his easel west every summer, where he traveled on steamship to Alaska, basing his camp in Sitka, Alaska. Traveling up the Inland Passage, Richardson explored and painted Glacier Bay, Muir Glacier, Wrangell, Juneau, and Klawock and Kilisnoo. With a Native American guide, he traveled by canoe quite broadly, with visits to the southern Aleutian Islands, and to many glaciers. His pioneer experiences in Minnesota served him well in Alaska, and he got on well with both the Native Americans and the white immigrants. Making 24 trips in all, he used a “floating studio” in which he rigged up his easel, umbrella and paints on a boat. Beginning in 1884, Richardson worked under contract for the Smithsonian to document Alaska’s Native American villagers, their communities and their art.

In 1886, he married a fellow artist whom he met in California’s Monterey artist colony. That same year, Richardson resigned from Minneapolis Public Schools, spending the next six years living in Europe with his wife. Returning from Europe in 1903, and until his death in 1914, Richardson and his wife followed the sun, and he painted with oils and watercolors equally. He died in Minneapolis, the result of injuries sustained when a steamship on which he was traveling in 1911 capsized outside of Seattle.

M/A 2014.13.01-02

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Riverfront Development Coordination Board

The Riverfront Development Coordination Board (RDCB) was established in the early 1970s as a joint powers organization to coordinate the Central Riverfront efforts of the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board, the Minneapolis Planning and Public Works Departments and the Minneapolis Housing and Redevelopment Authority. The RDCB was disbanded in 1982 and was replaced by the Riverfront Technical Advisory Committee.

M/A 2000.187.01

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Rochford, Daniel

Daniel Rochford was born in 1900 in Minnesota, and he attended Minneapolis public schools. He graduated from Yale College in 1921 and completed two years at Harvard Law School. He then became a writer and journalist for various newspapers and magazines, including the Boston Transcript. During WWII, he headed the Target Area Control for the Overseas Branch, Office of War Information. He worked for Standard Oil circa 1945-1962. One of the positions he held while employed by Standard Oil was as a management employee communication advisor. He died in 1996.

M/A 1998.01.01

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Saint Anthony Falls Club

The Saint Anthony Falls Club was organized in 1897 and federated in 1903. The purpose of the club was educational study. The official colors of the club were brown and maize. Each year a theme for study was selected. Meetings were held twice a month from September through April. Meetings were held every other Monday afternoon. (Note: from about 1932 until 1940 meetings were held on Tuesday afternoons). Meetings were held at the home of one of the members on a rotating schedule. In about 1938 a Drama Section, a Poetry Section and an International Section were added. These sections each met separately.

M/A 2000.52.01-02

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Saint Denis, Charles

Charles Saint Denis was born in Minnesota in 1901. He spent his early years in Green Isle, a small community southwest of Minneapolis. After graduating from South High School in Minneapolis, he went to the University of Minnesota and eventually got a law degree from the Minnesota College of Law. He spent many years at sea, circling the globe at least once and crossing the Atlantic over 90 times. He was even the radio broadcaster aboard USS America in 1931. While abroad, he operated a Catholic seaman's home in Singapore. During this time, he became aquainted with the Friendly Sons of St. Patrick, the organization for which he would eventually be the historian. He also traveled to Alaska on several occasions, and even helped a large group of Minnesota farmers relocate to the Matanuska Valley during the Depression. He also served as general counsel for the state emergency relief administration in 1935. He collapsed due to overwork while at this position, and spent two years at the Glen Lake sanatorium. He died in 1971 in Minneapolis.

M/A 1998.23.01

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Saturday Club

The Saturday Club was organized in Minneapolis in 1899, federated on the state level in 1909 and at the general level in 1919. Each year a theme for study was selected. Meetings were held every other Saturday from October until May. Meetings were held at the home of one of the members on a rotating schedule.

M/A 2000.53.01

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Saturday Lunch Club

Original purpose of the club was as a non-partisan open forum and disinterested service for free discussion of social, economic and political issues. Founder of the club was Stiles P. Jones (1862-1920), who worked for various newspapers including having the St Paul Pioneer Press and the Minneapolis Journal. Stiles founded the club in 1906 as a place where political, social, and economic issues could be threshed out in free debate. Meeting places included Dayton’s Tea Room, the Dyckman Grill Room, Y.M.C.A, Andrews Hotel, and Donaldson’s Tea Rooms. The club met weekly with scheduled speakers for the months of January through the middle of June and then from middle of September to end of December. Membership included men and women; dues were required. Topics for programs included civil rights, immigration act, foreign affairs, political activities and events. The first members were also members of The Voters League, of which Stiles P. Jones was the secretary.

M/A 2003.04.01-05

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Schilling Tours

Schilling Tours was a travel agency located in Minneapolis. The company organized summer tours, primarily to Europe. Wilber H. Schilling was the manager. The business was located on Washington Avenue South in the Nicollet Hotel building from about 1926-1929. In about 1930 the business moved to 728 Second Avenue S. The company’s slogan was "Travel is education."

M/A 2000.149.01

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Scott, Jessaline

Jessaline Scott, also known as Mrs. I. G. Scott, represented the Fourth District of Hennepin County Board of Commissioners. She first became interested in politics as a teenager, after she volunteered with the Women's Party to gain the vote for women. In 1921, she married Irving Scott, a Minneapolis alderman. After serving two terms, Irv was defeated in 1925. He decided to run again in 1929, and was successful, serving until 1937. Irving was then appointed by the city council to the Hennepin County Board of Commissioners in April 1937 to serve out the term of Emil Youngdahl, who had died in office. Irv served undefeated for 22 years until his death in August, 1960. During all this time, Jessaline remained involved in her husband's political career, assisting him with research and attending meetings with him. After his death, she felt she was more than qualified to take his spot. She ran for the board the fall of 1960 and won, becoming the first woman to serve on the Hennepin County Board of Commissioners. She served until 1970.

M/A 1998.60.01-05

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Search Light Study Club

The Search Light Study Club was organized and federated in 1908 in north Minneapolis. The motto of the Search Light Study Club was "In essential unity, in nonessential liberty; in all things charity." The purpose of the club was the study of subjects of interest in our own and foreign countries”. The club colors were gold and silver. Associated clubs included the Atawasios, Columbian Study Club, Ramblers, Twentieth Century, and Ladies' Shakespeare. Each year a theme for study was selected. Meetings were held every other Monday from September through April. Members hosted meetings a rotating schedule, typically at their homes. Membership was limited to 30 active members and 10 associate members. Meetings included presentations of papers by members and performances by guest musicians or lectures by guest lecturers. During World War I most of the club's time and efforts was given over to the Red Cross and Americanization work.

M/A 2000.57.01

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Seward Neighborhood Group

As one of the oldest neighborhoods in Minneapolis, Seward dates back to the first rapid expansion of the city in the late Nineteenth Century. Seward's history begins with its main commercial thoroughfare and cultural cornerstone, Franklin Avenue. Franklin originally ran along the southern border of the Town of Minneapolis, established in 1856. Over the next twenty-five years, the area expanded away from Franklin to the south and west. A major influence on the early growth of the neighborhood was the construction, in 1870, of the Iowa and Minnesota Division of the Milwaukee railroad, which runs parallel to Hiawatha Avenue on Seward's western border. With the introduction of the railroad, the western part of Seward began to develop into a small but dense residential area for the immigrant and working-class families who worked in Franklin Avenue's railroad shops and in nearby Minneapolis.

In 1888, the Franklin Avenue Bridge, which spans the Mississippi River, opened, and its introduction into the neighborhood fostered the commercial development of Franklin Avenue. That same year, Seward School was built at the corner of 24th Street and 28th Avenue South, near the old fairgrounds, joining Monroe Elementary School on Franklin to accommodate the neighborhood's expanding population. Between 1902 and 1905, the Park Board acquired the entire West River Road Park, a part of the green belt that connects so much of Minneapolis, and began making improvements that would eventually turn the park into the desirable residential location it is today. By 1930, the area had been built up into a fully developed neighborhood.

As the years passed, Seward began to deteriorate, and community members realized they would have to work to renew the neighborhood for the future. In 1960, the Seward Neighborhood Group (SNG) was formed to build the first school-park facility in Minneapolis. With the help of the school system, the Park Board, and Pillsbury Waite, SNG was able to create Matthews Park and Matthews Center, built to adjoin the new Seward Montessori School (which replaced the old Seward School and Monroe Elementary). The success of the SNG's efforts encouraged more activism. In the 1970s, the community became politicized during the urban-renewal period in Minneapolis, mobilizing to ensure National Historic Preservation status for the small working-class homes that lined Milwaukee Avenue. Community interest also resulted in the construction of Seward's high-rise apartment buildings, which added hundreds of units of affordable housing to the neighborhood.

M/A 2010.01.01-07

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Shuey, Alfred M.

Alfred M. Shuey, a Civil War veteran from Ohio, was an lifelong musician and prolific composer, publishing over 50 different musical compositions. He came to Minneapolis at age 17, immediately joined a small orchestra, and was a member of the first public performance of any kind with an orchestra in Minneapolis in 1866. In 1876, he established the Minneapolis Orchestra union, and two years later he became the organist and choir leader at St. Mark's Episcopal Church, where he remained for 20 years. He remained an active musician, performing many concerts throughout Minneapolis and St. Paul, until the late 1920s. In addition, he was an active Mason for 60 years, including 35 years as Captain of the Zuhrah temple. He died at age 83 on April 8, 1930 of a cerebral hemorrhage, one day before his 84th birthday.

M/A 1998.25.01-03

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Skylight Club

The Skylight Club was organized around 1890 with the purpose of serving as a salon for intellectually inquisitive and culturally sophisticated men to gather and discuss the issues of the day. Initially, meetings were held in the studio of artist Donald Volk, located at 719 Hennepin Avenue. Donald Volk organized a school of fine arts which later became the Minneapolis College of Art and Design. When Donald Volk moved to New York, and the meeting place for the Skylight Club moved to the Miller Building located 118 Sixth Street South. The club was named The Skylight Club because the meetings rooms at 719 Hennepin Avenue and 118 Sixth Street South had a skylight. The Skylight Club only met in the Miller Building briefly before moving again to the offices of Hewitt and Brown, Architects at 716 Avenue South. When member Edwin H. Hewitt built a new building at Twelfth Street & Second Avenue South, he provided accommodations for the Club. The club met there from 1920 until 1974, when the building changed ownership. From 1974 until 1976, the club met in one of the Pillsbury mansions on 24th Street South. In 1976 the Club moved to the Clubhouse of the American Association of University Women at 2115 Stevens Avenue. This mansion was the former home of Edward C. Gale, a founding member of the club. By 1985 the club had 171 members. Meetings were typically held on the third Wednesday of each month from September through May. Meetings usually included a guest speaker. The Club did not elect officers nor did it have a formal written constitution.

M/A 2000.58.01-07

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Smith, James G.

James G. Smith was born in Minnesota in 1909. Prior to enlisting, James was co-owner/operator of the Goal Line which sold beverages and was located at 1506 E. Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis and his wife Melba worked at the Red Owl Store at 900 North 4th Street. His parents worked at Greenwood Lodge in McGregor, Minnesota, in the summers. At March 1942 at the age of 32, James enlisted in the Army. His battalion left for Europe in early March of 1944.

He spent more of his military career as a Technical Sergeant with the 519th AAA Gun Battalion. He received bronze stars for service in the France campaign at Normandy (Utah Beach), German campaign at Rhineland, and in the Belgium campaign at the Battle of the Bulge. In May of 1945, he was promoted to 1st Sergeant and was stationed at one of the largest prisoner of war camps on the continent. He had two noncombat injuries during his military career, one of which was serious injuries from a jeep accident that resulted in hospitalization in France. He returned to the United States in October of 1945.

M/A 1998.02.01-02

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Stanley Hall Academy for Young Women

Stanley Hall was an English and Classical School for Girls. It opened in 1890 and was located at 10 East 17th Street in Minneapolis until it moved into its new facilities at 2118 Pleasant Avenue South in 1896 where it remained until 1921. It was also referred to as Stanley College.

Many items in the collection belonged to Ruth and Irene Ritteman. Ruth Ritteman and her sister Irene attended Stanley Hall from 1920 to 1921. Born to William Ritteman and Della Ellen Whaley, Ruth was afflicted with osteomyelitis (an infectious inflammatory disease of the bone marked by local death and separation of tissue) and very ill for the remainder of her childhood, and was confined to a wheel chair. Ruth was sent to Colorado Springs for health where she attended Colorado Springs High School, graduating in 1918. Before starting school at Stanley Hall, she underwent further treatments for her illness at Mayo Clinic. In August, 1920, Ruth received her certificate for home hygiene and care of sick training from the American Red Cross. She graduated from Stanley Hall in 1921, then attended Moorhead State Teacher's College, going on to become a teacher. Ruth was active in theater while at Stanley Hall and after graduation.

Irene Ritteman was completely deaf, but able to read lips. She attended classes at Stanley Hall and also graduated in 1921. She married Virgil Folger and they lived in Hawley. She had six children and 24 grandchildren.

M/A 1998.03.01-02

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Stevens, John H.

John Harrington Stevens (1820–1900) was the first non-native resident on the west side of the Mississippi River in present-day Minneapolis. He operated a ferry across the river before the construction of the first Hennepin Avenue Bridge and subsequently became a colonel in the U.S. Army. He later served in the Minnesota Legislature.

Stevens Sqaure Park is named after him, and his wood frame home, moved from its original location at the current site of the Federal Reserve building, is now a museum in Minnehaha Park.

M/A 2014.01.01

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Sumner Field Housing Project

The first government built and operated housing development in Minneapolis was Sumner Field. Built in 1938, it consisted of 44 two-story row houses and four three-story apartment buildings in a municipal park-like setting. It was a government effort to clear slums, address a housing shortage and create construction jobs during the Great Depression. Private landlords opposed it.

Sumner Field was the oldest, largest, and second of four housing complexes demolished under the settlement of a lawsuit (1995 Hollman settlement) alleging that public agencies discriminated by concentrating minorities in inner-city public housing.

Sumner Field was razed in 1998. It was replaced by the Heritage Park Housing Development, built between 2002-2009. Heritage Park is roughly bounded by Lyndale, Emerson, Third and 10th Avenues North.

The early residents of Sumner Field were predominately Jewish along with some African-Americans. African-Americans and Southeast Asians made up the majority of residents immediately before Sumner Field was razed.

M/A 2000.190.01-03

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Sumner Glenwood Community Maps

Clarence William Miller was born on August 22, 1908 in La Grange, Missouri. He was the eldest of ten children born to Joseph Irving and Clarissa Lewis Miller. In 1914, his family migrated to Minneapolis where the rest of the family was born and raised. Clarence was educated in the Minneapolis public school system and graduated from the Sumner Grade School in 1924. He attended high school, but left before graduating in order to work. One of his first jobs was at the Minneapolis Recreation Parlor on Hennepin Avenue where such notables as J. Paul Getty and “Minnesota Fats” entertained themselves.

In 1928, Clarence met Helen Clack and they were married on September 19, 1931. From this union, two daughters, Marlyn and Carol, were born. Clarence worked at the Jefferson Bus Lines until 1946. He and the family took a vacation to visit Helen’s sister in California and ended up staying. His first job was with Fruehoff Trucking as a painter. Then he went to work for the Pacific Bell Company until his retirement. While constantly reminiscing and correcting the nature of data and events, Clarence put his fondest memories on paper, creating maps of the Sumner Glenwood area. He continued to work on this project well into his retirement. He died on February 23, 1988.

During the 1920s, the Sumner Glenwood community was comprised of many individuals who were Black or Jewish. Miller states that during this time period many of the businesses were changing from Jewish owners to Black owners. Many houses and apartment buildings were nestled in amongst warehouses, businesses, railway lines, businesses, churches, synagogues and schools. There were recreational areas like tennis courts, football fields, and ice skating rinks. By the 1930s, housing in the Sumner Field area had fallen into disrepair, and the Federal government allocated $3.5 million to improve it. By 1938, the Sumner Field Homes Federal Housing Project was completed.

M/A 2006.02.01

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Sunnyside Literary Club

The Sunnyside Literacy Club was organized in 1893. The object of the club was "mutual improvement." Meetings were held every other Friday from September through April. Members hosted meetings at their homes on a rotating schedule. Topics of study included Shakespeare, France and Spain.

M/A 2000.61.01

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Taney, Clifford and Family

Clifford A. Taney, Jr. (1899-1961) attended the U.S. Military Academy in 1920, but his military career ended following a leg injury shortly after his graduation. He received a law degree from the University of Minnesota Law School in 1924 and joined the Minneapolis law firm of Fowler, Carlson, Farber & Johnson (later Fowler, Youngquist, Farber, Taney, & Johnson), remaining there until his retirement in the mid-1950s.

In 1926, he married Miriam McHugh Taney (1900-1971), a graduate of Smith College. A prolific art lecturer, she was active with the friends organization of the Minneapolis Institute of Art (MIA) and offered her voice to local radio program hosted by the MIA. With her husband, she traveled around the world and took photographs of Europe, Africa, Asia, South America, and numerous islands that primarily date before the outbreak of World War II.

M/A 1998.58.01-04

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Theatre in the Round

After the Circle Theatre was closed down for financial reasons in the early 1950s, seven of its members decided to start a new theatre, a theatre supported by its members. The group convinced 50 of their friends to pay $10 for three season tickets and by 1953 the theater was up and running. Its first play, "Life with Father," was performed at the local YWCA. The company established themselves as Theatre in the Round. In 1961 the theatre moved to an old loft building on Hennepin Ave for a brief time before moving to a new home on Stevens Ave.

In 1969, the Theatre was forced to move once again due to the sale of the building in which they were housed. They found an old warehouse on Cedar Avenue, which they transformed into a 287 seat modern state of the art theater. In 1973, Theatre in the Round co-founded the Minnesota Association of Community Theatre and in 1976 they helped found Out and About Theatre, the Twin Cities first gay theatre group, which became one of the longest-running in the country. In 1989, Theatre in the Round started a youth program that became so successful that it broke off into an independent theater company, Youth Performance Company, one of the top youth theater programs in the area.

Theatre in the Round Players celebrated their 50th season in 2001-2002 with a special selection of titles and directors and the largest capital campaign in its history. The funding allowed the organization to add facilities for its artists and make both technical and facilities improvements, making it one of the most attractive and accessible theaters in the area.

M/A 2012.17.01-02

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Thompson, Ruth

Local historian and librarian, Ruth Thompson spent her life uncovering and preserving the local history of Minneapolis. She was the first student at the University of Minnesota to receive a master's degree for a thesis on Minnesota history. She graduated in 1912. In 1919 Thompson joined the art department staff at Minneapolis Public Library. In 1938 Ruth Thompson was named the first secretary of the Hennepin County Historical Society.

In 1940, Ms. Thompson was put in charge of the newly formed Minneapolis Historical Collection at the Minneapolis library. After her retirement from the library in 1946, she started to write a weekly column for the Minneapolis Tribune called "Minnesota Memories". The column ran from January 1, 1945 to October 9, 1950. Ruth Thompson died on October 20, 1950.

M/A 1998.07.01-02

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Thursday Musical

Founded on November 10, 1892 by 13 young musicians as the Lorelei Club with Laura C. Dennis Williams (neé Dennis) as president. The name was used for only one meeting; later, the organization was renamed as the Ladies Thursday Musicale with 16 more new members signing the constitution. Its purpose was, "to advance the interests and promote the culture of musical art in the city of Minneapolis and for the mutual improvement of its members" by providing a venue for local talent, including prominent musicians and opera singers.

M/A 2000.63.01-25

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Thursday Study Club

The Thursday Study Club was organized in November 1899 by nine neighbor women with the goal of improving themselves. It was originally called the Neighborhood Current Events Club or Magazine Current Events Club. In 1905 the name was changed to the Thursday Study Club and topics of study moved beyond geographical regions to include a wider variety. The constitution and bylaws were ratified on May 29, 1900. The club was federated in 1901.

The charter members were: Mrs. K. P. B. McKinzie, President; Mrs. H. H. Freeman, Secretary; Mrs. Birch, Mrs. Riley, Mrs. Callree, Mrs. Pect, Mrs. J. F. Morehouse and Mrs. George W. Cooley. Other notable members included Mrs. O.D. Wisner and Mrs. H.G. Richardson. Membership was limited to 40 women. Meetings were typically held at the home of one of the members on alternate Thursdays from September through April. Most topics of study fell under the category "The World of Today." The purpose of the meetings was to "gain intellectual development through free discussion."

M/A 2000.62.01

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Today Club

The Today Club was founded on April 17, 1897. The object of the club was to "be the mutual improvement of its members in literature and cultivation of the social qualities." Membership was limited to 28. Every year a topic of study was chosen (e.g. Shakespeare, South America). Papers on the chosen topic of study were presented by members at the meetings, which were held every other week. The meetings locations varied, but were typically held at the home of one of its members.

M/A 2000.64.01

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Tourist Club

The Tourist Club was formed on November 23, 1891 at the home of the founder, Mrs. Cyrus W. (Martha) Wells. Charter members included Mrs. C.A. Bucknam, Mrs. J.C. Buchanan and Mrs. Edwin S. Slater. The object of the club was to prepare for intelligent travel, the study plan to embrace all that would interest a broadminded tourist, including history, art music and description. The club motto was “What we know is the measure of what we see.” The club met at the Public Library in Minneapolis until about 1923 when their meeting place was travelled to the Minneapolis Institute of Art and finally the Walker Art Gallery and the YWCA. The membership was 40 women.

M/A 2000.66.01

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Travelers' Club

The Travelers' Club was organized in 1896. Its purpose was "the study of countries, cities and objects of interest" and to "obtain culture and knowledge which are usually derived from travel." The Club motto was a quote from Samuel Johnson: "He who from travel would bring home knowledge, must take knowledge with him." Charter Members included Mrs. Charles L. (Ella Henderson) Bartholomew and Mrs. George (Cora McDuffee) Beach. Meetings were held at the Public Library in Minneapolis on alternate Fridays from September until April. Membership was limited to 25 women.

M/A 2000.67.01

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Tuesday Club

The club was founded in May of 1874 in Minneapolis and was originally called the Grecian Study Class. Initial meetings were held in a hall on Hennepin Avenue, but were soon moved to the home Mrs. Cyrus Aldrich in order to save costs. In 1882 the club began to switch its area of study from Greek history to biographies and was thus renamed the Biographical Club. The name Tuesday Club was never formally adopted; it simply came to be called the Tuesday Club to distinguish it from another club that many members also belonged to that met on Mondays.

The club members prided themselves in the diversity of their religious background and their ability to discuss religious questions with great freedom. Initially, club meeting were strictly business, but as membership begin to decline the club decided to become more social in nature, including a luncheon before the meeting in an effort to improve meeting attendance.

M/A 2000.69.01

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Twentieth Century Club

The Twentieth Century Club was organized on February 15, 1900 in Minneapolis, Minnesota. Its original name was the Young Matron’s Club. The Club’s named changed to Twentieth Century Club in 1916. The club’s original purpose was “child study and home economics”, but was redefined as “the advancement of social, benevolent and educational activities”.

Club membership was limited 40 women. Meetings were held twice a month from September through May. Members were held at the home of one of the members. Meetings frequently featured music and lectures. The club was also active in civic activities including the Red Cross and local school programs.

M/A 2000.72.01

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Twin City Iron Works Photo Album

The Twin City Iron Works was founded in Minneapolis in 1887 by O.P Briggs, W.H. Getschell and Joseph Garbett. Garbett was the vice president of the company until its operations were combined with the Minnesota Malleable Iron Company to form the Minneapolis Steel and Machinery Company. This company later combined with the Minneapolis Threshing Machine Company and the Moline Plow Company in 1929 to form Minneapolis-Moline.

M/A 2014.03.01

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Twin City Machine Shop

The Twin City Machine Co. was started in 1900 as a partnership between Alfred Schneider and Joseph Garbett. The shop was located in the Power Building on Nicollet Island. The property was owned by the Ingenhut family. The shop moved to 527 2nd Avenue S.E. in 1930. The shop specialized in grinding and corrugating rolls for flour mills, feed mills, linseed oil mills and soybean mills. The shop also bored the cylinders for stationary steam engines, and made steel corrugating tools and did other custom machinery work.

The shop was incorporated in 1910 after the death of Joseph Garbett and the stock was divided between the two families. By 1939 Alfred Schneider and the sons of Joseph Garbett (Fred Garbett and Ben Garbett) had passed away. Alfred Schneider’s sons (Frank M. Schneider and his brother) purchased the stock from the Garbett heirs and ran the company until December 1973 when it was sold to Howard Creason.

M/A 2000.150.01

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Ueland, Brenda

Brenda Ueland was born in Minneapolis on October 24, 1891 and died on March 5, 1985. She was one of seven children, the daughter of a suffragette and a lawyer who worked his way through law school digging ditches. Ueland was a graduate of Barnard College in 1913 but eschewed the standard debutante party. She was active in suffrage and socialist meetings, advocating on behalf of factory girls and prostitutes, and became the first female reporter for the Minneapolis Tribune.

An author and columnist, Ueland worked as a columnist for Liberty (Chicago Tribune), then as a freelance writer, and was published in The Saturday Evening Post, Ladies’ Home Journal, Colliers, Harper's, Delineator, and Hearst’s International. She also wrote the column “What Goes on Here” for the Minneapolis Daily Times.

M/A 1998.27.01

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United Order of Foresters Nicollet Lodge, No. 91

The United Order of Foresters was a fraternal society organized in 1893. I's home office was in Milwaukee, Wisconsin. The first known recorded meeting of the Nicollet Lodge (or Nicollet Court) chapter of the United Order of Foresters was on April 14, 1897. By April of 1899 the Nicollet Lodge chapter of the United Order of Foresters had over one hundred members. Meetings were held at 723 Nicollet Avenue on alternate Tuesdays. Around 1912 the meetings were moved to K.P. Hall, Masonic Temple (524-30 Hennepin Avenue) and the meeting time was changed to alternate Saturdays. Meetings were conducted under the rules of parliamentary procedures. However, meetings were also social and often included hired entertainment and meals.

Club leaders were referred to as "Chief Ranger." Club members were referred to as "Brothers." One of the most popular membership benefits was the option to buy whole life and term insurance.

M/A 2000.73.01

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University of Minnesota Theatre

The first group on the University of Minnesota campus to perform plays was Delta Sigma, organized in 1867. The group, typically avid debaters, would put on a play or musical once or twice every year. Theatre at the University continued like this for many years with no club or organization solely devoted to drama. In 1896 an official University Dramatic Club formed, and was considered the first real dramatic club on campus. By 1920, there were four dramatic groups on campus.

In 1940, plans for a $500,000 brand new theatre were drawn up; the building was to have three floors plus a basement which would house the classes and lectures. The war put a hold on all new building plans, but as the war ended the plans were brought to the table again.

The 1950's were known as the "Golden Age of University Theatre" for the University. The Theatre debuted many plays on the campus stage and saw the return of many old favorites. The push for the new building took front seat in 1953 with the publishing of the book, "A Circle of Vision", which talked about the vision of the theatre program at the University.

In 1960, Tyrone Guthrie decided to build his new theatre in Minneapolis which caused the budget for the University Theatre to skyrocket. When the Guthrie Theatre opened in 1963, the University partnered with them and sent 12 students per year to the Guthrie Theatre for internships. By 1967 the new building looked more like it would become a reality, as the Theatre program was spread across ten different buildings at this point.

There was unrest on the campus at the start of the 1970s with many protests taking place for reasons stretching from the Vietnam War to fast food chains. In January 1971, ground was finally broken for the new building, which would house four theatres, classrooms, scene and costume shops, offices, and television and radio studios. In 1973, the final season was held in Scott Hall and the Rarig Center opened in time for the 1973-1974 seasons.

M/A 2012.19.01-04

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Upham, Daniel

Daniel M. "Danny" Upham was a staff writer, editor, and columnist, born in outstate Minnesota on March 19, 1907, and died on April 10, 1978. He was the managing editor of the Minneapolis Star, and also wrote a weekly column, "Judging the Law," for which he won a Silver Gavel Award in 1971. His wife, Bertha, had preceded him in death in 1976.

M/A 1998.28.01-02

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Utopian Study Club

The Utopian Study Club originated in 1892 with a small group of young girls, who object was to study the Chicago World’s Fair. The original name of this group was the Young Ladies’ Current Events Club. On November 26, 1894 the name of the Club was changed to the Sojourners. On February 4, 1895 the name of the club was again changed to the Utopian Study Club. The object of the club was intellectual improvement, but it also featured social events and community and philanthropic work.

M/A 2000.74.01

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Van Sant, Samuel R.

Samuel Rinnah Van Sant was born in Rock Island, IL, on May 11, 1844. He fought on the Union side during the Civil War and later relocated to Winona, MN in 1883. He was elected to the Minnesota Legislature in 1892 as a Senator, then was elected governor in 1900 under the Republican ticket. After politics, he returned to business, managing a Minneapolis investment firm.

M/A 2013.08.01

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Vandenbergh, Pieter

Pieter Vandenbergh was born in Bussum, The Netherlands on January 9, 1886, and died on October 1, 1981 in Minneapolis. He emigrated to Winnipeg, Canada in 1906 with his parents and eight younger siblings. In 1908 the family moved to Minneapolis, Minnesota where Vandenbergh would remain for the majority of his life. On March 25, 1916, Pieter married Edith Sylvania Blomquist.

Vandenbergh was an active member of the community in Minneapolis, particularly the labor and cooperative movements. Both Vandenbergh and his wife were active members of various cooperative organizations such as credit unions, insurance cooperatives, and related consumer groups. As a painter at the Nicollet Hotel, Pieter was an active member of the Painters' Union Local 386. He was also a member of the First Unitarian Society in Minneapolis.

M/A 1998.29.01-02

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Victory Memorial Driveway Committee

In 1918 the Board of Park Commissioners decided to redesign Glenwood-Camden Parkway to permit the planting of memorial trees memorializing lives lost in World War I from Hennepin County. The sale of bonds in 1920 provided the necessary financing for construction and paving, which was completed in 1921. A trust fund was presented to the Board by the Hon. C.M. Loring to cover the costs of caring for the trees. Hundreds of new elm trees were planted along Glewood-Camden Parkway from Lowry Ave. North to Crystal Lake Road, north to 45th and Xerxes and east to Camden Park.

The Victory Memorial Drive Committee, chaired by David L. Sutherland, organized a grand dedication ceremony for the new roadway. On June 11, 1921, more than 30,000 people, including many distinguished military personnel, attended Victory Memorial Drive Dedication ceremony in the city of Minneapolis.

M/A 2000.75.01

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Victory Neighborhood Council

In 1974, the Park and Recreation Board of the City of Minneapolis begin the process of putting together a proposal for the development of a neighborhood playground and a shelter building in accordance with the Minneapolis Park and Recreation Board standards. The playground was built upon 1.9 acres of property leased from and adjacent to Loring Elementary School in the Victory Neighborhood as part of the city’s 5-year Capital Improvement Program. A Victory Neighborhood Park Planning Committee was formed in March 1976. Mr. Floyd Scott and Ms. Janice Keller served as co-chairs. On December 14, 1976, the design program developed by the committee was approved by the City Council and the Board of Estimate and Taxation. The Victory Park project begin construction in 1977 and was completed in 1978.

M/A 2000.176.01

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Violet Study Club

The Violet Study Club was organized in March 1906 in north Minneapolis and federated in 1907. They were affiliated with the Argosy and Pathfinders Clubs. The motto of the Violet Study Club was “Knowledge is Power”. The purpose of the club was “self-improvement morally, socially, intellectually and spiritually”. The club gave its members an opportunity to continue their education is such areas as poetry, art and literature. Each year a theme for study was selected. Meetings were held every other week from September through May.

M/A 2000.78.01

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Walker Art Center

The history of the Walker Art Center starts in the 1870s when lumberman and city father Thomas Barlow (T.B) Walker began collecting paintings and other works of art for his house on 8th and Hennepin Ave. In 1879 Walker built a gallery between his residence and his carriage house to display 20 paintings. This was the first public gallery in the Midwest. He collected landscapes, portraits, historical paintings and bronzes, miniatures, classical and Asian art. By 1892 Walker opened three more gallery rooms and also was contributing art to the public library's art gallery its location at 10th and Hennepin Ave. By 1912 Walker's residence, art gallery and offices took up one-fourth of the block. Walker later moved his family and his art to the Thomas Lowry Mansion on Lowry Hill in 1916. In 1920 Walker's compound on 8th and Hennepin was torn down to make way for the State Theater. In the meantime the bulk of the collection was housed at the Minneapolis Public Library while Walker offered to donate land and his collection for a new library and art museum. The proposal was first accepted and then ultimately rejected by the city.

In 1925 T.B. Walker established the T.B. Walker Foundation “to promote educational, artistic and scientific interests. He commissioned a 25 room building on Lyndale Avenue to exhibit his art collection. The museum, a two story structure with a neo-Moorish façade was opened in 1927, a few months before Walker's death. The foundation's legacy was added to by a bequest from T.B. Walker's eldest son, Gilbert M. Walker in 1928 and in 1929, another son, Archie D. Walker was elected the foundation's president. The depression was a period of minimal budgets and growth with almost non-existent income.

As the museum’s programming and activities increased, the 1927 building was deemed insufficient for present and future needs. After examining possible renovation plans, a new building was decided upon. A capital campaign for a new Walker and increased space for the Guthrie was begun in 1968. Construction began in mid-1969. The new Walker, designed by Edward Larrabee Barnes opened in 1971.

M/A 2008.02.01-11

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Wallace, Sarah Leslie

Sarah Leslie Wallace was born in Kansas City, Missouri. As a small child she moved to Minneapolis with her family. She received her undergraduate and graduate degrees from the College of St. Catherine. She later was a part-time instructor at the College of St. Catherine in the following subjects: adolescent literature, library administration publicity, public relations and community relations.

Sarah L. Wallace was a librarian at the Minneapolis Public Library from 1935 to 1962. The collection consists of Christmas cards that were sent to friends and colleagues. Wallace graduated from College of St. Catherine with a library degree in 1935. She began her career at Minneapolis Public Library in 1936 as an assistant in the reference department. In 1942, she became the publicity assistant. And, in 1945 she became the assistant administrator. In 1954, she moved into the public relations office as an officer and held the position until 1962. She was offered and accepted the position of Publications Officer at the Library of Congress in Washington D. C. in 1963. She held this position until her retirement in 1977.

In Minneapolis Wallace lived at 4949 Queen Ave S until 1946 when she moved to Edina. She moved to 5024 Halifax in 1953 and lived there 1963. For many years she prepared original, artistic Christmas cards often including herself as a caricature. The cards were reproduced professionally. Sarah lived with her mother Mary and sister Dorothy at the Queen and Halifax addresses.

M/A 2005.02.01

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WAMSO - Minnesota Orchestra Volunteer Association

The Women’s Association of the Minnesota Orchestra (WAMSO), a nonprofit corporation of volunteers, promotes the enjoyment of music and provides support for the Minnesota Orchestra through fundraising activities and music education for children and adults throughout Minnesota. The club’s original name was Women’s Association of the Minnesota Symphony Orchestra, but it is now known as WAMSO – Minnesota Orchestra Volunteer Association.

The organization was founded in 1949. The founding members were Mrs. Rosalynd Pflaum, Mrs. Ehrma Strachauer, Mrs. Margaret Hawks, Mrs. Charlotte Weld, and Mrs. Cornelia Spencer. The Club was located at 7515 Wayzata Boulevard, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55426. It was also located at 907 Hennepin Avenue, Minneapolis, Minnesota, but is now located at 1111 Nicollet Mall, Minneapolis, Minnesota 55403.

Its programs include Symphony Ball, Young Artist Competition, Young Audiences, Kinder Konzerts and other music clinics and classes. Its purpose is “to stimulate interest in and to encourage wide support of the orchestra.” It is a member of the Women’s Association for Symphony Orchestras, a network of organizations throughout the United States and Canada.

M/A 2000.160.01-02

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Warmington, Carl

Carl Warmington was born on September 5, 1907 in Dubuque, Iowa. He lived in Minneapolis from 1909 to 1936 at 3105 Clinton Avenue with his parents. He married Ruth Carter in 1936 and the couple lived in St. Paul until 1938 when Carl accepted the Executive Secretaryship of the Kansas City, Kansas Community Chest and Council. The Warmingtons did not return to live in Minnesota until 1978 when they briefly lived near Lake Harriet before they moved to Florida in 1980 for the rest of their retirement. Carl Warmington died on December 17, 2006 in Bradenton, Florida.

Warmington was a musician, social worker, and Minneapolis resident. The collection includes biographical reminiscences, especially about the Depression and Mr. Warmington's days as a member of a Jazz band during the 1920s. Also includes photos from his days as director of the Homeless Men's Bureau (early 30s) and manuscripts.

M/A 1998.30.01

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Watson Family

Amelia G. (Chapin) Watson (married in 1867 to Jabez Poole Watson 1845-1909) of Marshall, MN was a writer. Collection consists of her diaries 1866-1932. Also a scrapbook of her articles etc.

M/A 1998.31.01

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Way Center

The Way Center, sometimes referred to as The New Way Center, began in August 8, 1966 after an outbreak of violence on the North Side of Minneapolis on August 4, 1966. Its short range purpose was to help calm the neighborhood by providing an off-the-street facility for youth and a meeting place for residents; its long range purpose was to mobilize the North Side of Minneapolis through youth activities, education, employment referrals, housing, and law enforcement.

The Center was originally located at 1913 Plymouth Ave. N and in 1984 it moved to 12th Ave. and Humboldt Ave. N. Early supporters included Minneapolis Mayor Arthur Naftalin and local businessman Ray Plank of Apache Corp.

Early leaders were Syl Davis, who was the director until November 1970, Gwyn Jones-Davis (later Jonesdavispyle), Rev. Rolland Robinson, Milton Williams and Willie Mae Dixon. Bert Davis was director from 1970-1974. Harry (Spike) Moss was director from 1974-1986.

The Center was noted for reaching out to people who were affiliated with gangs or were involved in criminal activities.

The Way Center faced ongoing fundraising challenges and in December 1986 they closed. In September 1990 a new youth center opened in the same location at 12th and Humboldt. City-Northside was operated by a south Minneapolis youth agency called The City, Inc. Many of the former employees of the Way Center became employees of The City-Northside.

M/A 2000.178.01

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Weisman Art Museum

The University Art Gallery was opened in 1933 in the Northrup Memorial Auditorium. Then-University president Lotus Coffman said, "there is a need for new values to sustain the morale of individuals in the days ahead. The arts are a source for such values and I want this university to play a leading part in instilling them." The gallery was initially called the "Little Gallery". The museum's first curator was Hudson D. Walker. When Walker died, his collection of American art from the first half of the twentieth century that he shared with his wife, Ione, was donated to the museum.

The name of this gallery changed to the University Gallery, and then the University Art Museum. Eventually it was dubbed the Frederick R. Weisman Art Museum, after a major contribution from the Minneapolis native, entrepreneur, and noted philanthropist.

The museum's current building, a silvery futuristic-looking structure, was designed by architect Frank Gehry. The building opened in 1993.

The museum is particularly noted for its American collection including multiple works by Marsden Hartley, Alfred Maurer, and Charles Biederman, as well as its collection of ceramics. The museum's mission is to "create art experiences that spark discovery, critical thinking, and transformation, linking the University and the community."

As of 1993, the museum was funded entirely from private sources.

M/A 2014.05.01-02

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Weld, Charlotte Griffin

Charlotte Griffin Weld (Mrs. Frederic(k) D. Weld, Mrs. F. D. Weld) was born on November 14, 1906, and died on January 10, 1999. She graduated from Wells College in 1929, and her family moved to Minneapolis from Auburn, New York while her daughter was still young. Weld recruited volunteers for Minneapolis social agencies. In 1940, she was elected president of the Minneapolis College Women’s Club, and in 1945 became chair of the women’s division of the Hennepin County war finance committee. In 1958 she became president of the Friends of the Institute of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts (trustee ex officio). Ms. Weld also served as president of the Friends of the Minneapolis Institute of Arts in the 1950s, president of the Women’s Christian Association, and was a founder of the Women’s Association of the Minnesota Orchestra (WAMSO). After her death, she left one daughter, Eleanor (Elie) Weld Reid.

M/A 1998.51.01

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Wells, Leonard

Leonard Wells was the book buyer of Powers Department Store. He began his career at Powers as a buyer for the drug department. He began with new books, but eventually branched out into used, rare and finely bound books. He acted as publisher for a few books with Minnesota themes. He also bought artifacts from the homes of famous literary people. He was the book buyer from 1895 until his death in 1933.

M/A 2012.22.01

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Wells, Martha C.

Martha C. Wells (Mrs. Cyrus W. Wells) of 2500 Stevens Avenue, was born in Kewanee, Illinois on April 4, 1847, and died on September 1, 1948 at the age of 101, the "oldest woman in Minneapolis" at that time, who could recall being a student when Lincoln was assassinated. Ms. Wells graduated valedictorian of her class from Rockford College, Rockford, Illinois, in 1866, married in 1872, and in 1880 came to Minneapolis with her husband, Cyrus W. Wells, a prominent real estate developer. She was a charter member of the Monday Club and of the Minneapolis Women’s Club, and was one of the organizers of the State Federation of Women's clubs. She also lectured for and served as literary director of the Merriam Park Women’s Club, the Merriam Park Study Club, and the Minneapolis Argosy Club.

M/A 1998.32.01

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West High School Class of 1932, Compiled by Betty Bridgman

Elizabeth "Betty" Bridgman was a local poet, playwright, teacher, and speaker. Born Elizabeth Klein, she graduated from West High School in Minneapolis in 1932 and received her bachelor's degree in English literature from Hamline University in St. Paul. This collection documents her involvement in the planning process of West High Class of 1932 Reunions.

M/A 1998.06.01-02

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Whitcomb, Anna

Anna Whitcomb was born in March 1886 was a teacher and poet. She received her teaching certificate on June 2, 1919. Anna taught 7th and 8th grade History and Geography at Lake Harriet School in Minneapolis for twenty five years. Anna was the president of the Minneapolis Poetry Society for several years. Anna died on August 14, 1980.

M/A 1998.33.01

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Wilkinson, William

Reverend William Wilkinson was born in Huddersfield, England, on April 3, 1848. The son of a Yorkshire woolen waver, he apprenticed as a weaver at age 10, and followed the trade for twenty years while studying religion in the evening. In 1870 his lifelong interest in religion led him to write and publish on the disestablishment of the Church of Ireland; these attracted attention, and encouraged by the response, Wilkinson studied to become an Episcopal minister.

On the advice of physicians, he left for the "open spaces" of America, arriving in 1882, and worked under Bishop Whipple, famous missionary to the Native Americans in the Dakotas and in Minnesota. He served as a missionary among lumbermen of northern Minnesota, and served for a time as rector of St. Andrew's Church (James and 19th Ave.) in Minneapolis. He also served as an Episcopal clergyman in Minneapolis, and at one point served as chaplain of the Minnesota House of Representatives. Wilkinson left Minnesota in 1902 for New York, where he died on December 7, 1925. He is buried at Lakewood Cemetery in Minneapolis.

M/A 1998.34.01

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William A. French and Company

William A. French (also known as Bill French, W.A. French, William Albert French) was born on April 2, 1863 in Plainfield, N.J and died on February 2, 1942. After moving to Minnesota in the 1880’s, French became a nationally recognized furniture maker and interior decorator known for his hand-made furniture. He was a founder and director of the Minnesota Chapter of the American Institute of Interior Decorators and owner of William A. French & Co., and then of William A. French Studios Inc. on Park and Nicollet Avenues. While French started his company in St. Paul and then moved to Minneapolis, his businesses operated out of factories and storefronts as far away as Winnipeg and New York. He had a summer home on the St. Croix River where he stayed with his wife, Fannie K. French, and daughter, Sally Hunt Tearse (also known as Sally Hunt). After his death, the main office of the William A. French Co. was moved to Duluth, MN.

M/A 2000.151.01-06

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Williams, James Austin

James Austin Williams was born in Mitcheldean, England, on April 19, 1876, and died sometime after 1934. He moved to Winnipeg with his parents at age ten, and at eighteen served as assistant postmaster at Manitou and also worked for a general merchant. After studying music in Winnipeg he moved to Minneapolis in 1897 to continue his studies, finding employment with a manufacturer or rope and twine.

After traveling and singing through a lyceum bureau, he opened his own studio in 1900 and became conductor of The Philharmonic Club and sang tenor at the Church of the Redeemer, in Minneapolis. Later, he became director and choirmaster at Gethsemane Episcopal Church (his "headquarters"), Wesley M. E. Church, and Immanuel Norwegian Lutheran Church, all also in Minneapolis. At some time, he also served as director of the Central High Glee Club. He married, and by 1937 another man was serving as choirmaster at Gethsemane.

M/A 1998.35.01

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Williams, Thomas Hale

A native of Rhode Island, Thomas Hale Williams was born in 1814 and died March 9, 1901. A printer by trade, he later studied law at Harvard but decided to pursue his love of librarianship, first at the Providence Athenaeum, then, after settling in Minneapolis in either 1854 or 1856, at the Minneapolis Athenaeum as the first Minneapolis public librarian. Before coming to Minneapolis, his travels west in 1837 allowed him to witness the "pro-slavery" mob in Alton, Illinois who killed abolitionist Elijah Lovejoy and destroyed his printing presses, and it, along with the prospect of staying in a city ruled by "mob law," remained a poignant memory for him. Williams wrote, "Four presses have been destroyed in this land of liberty, because they dared to tell the truth." Williams was a member of the board of supervisors from 1864 to 1867, and after the adoption of the city charter government in 1867, served as city clerk until 1872. His book store housed the Young Men's Literary Association for eight years rent-free, until the Association was incorporated in 1860 as the Minneapolis Athenaeum. Williams drafted its charter based upon the Providence charter, and he also raised $1500 for the purchase of the Athenaeum site, where he served as head librarian until 1889 when its collections were moved to the public library building. At his suggestion the U.S. Commissioner of Education convened in 1876 a meeting of librarians nation wide at the Philadelphia Centennial exhibition to organize the American Library Association. In later years Williams retired with his family west of Cedar Lake where he enjoyed showing visitors his scrapbooks and diaries, which he began in 1827.

M/A 1998.36.01

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Wirth, Theodore

Theodore Wirth was born on November 30, 1863 in Winterthur, Switzerland and emigrated alone to the United States in 1888. He died on January 29, 1949. He served as the Superintendent of the Minneapolis Park System 1906-1935, during which time the city’s parks expanded from 1,780 acres to 5,241, doubled its length from 31.1 miles to 62.23 miles. He was a strong advocate of outdoor recreation and safe park access for all, gaining him admittance to the National Recreation and Park Association Hall of Fame.

Wirth came to Minneapolis in 1905 to accept the offer from Charles Loring of Superintendent, following the retirement of William Morse Berry. Initially reluctant, Wirth accepted the position with the condition that a home be built for him, and that he be given a chauffeur, since Wirth never learned to drive.

Wirth strongly supported Charles Loring’s Street Tree Program, begun in 1888, and implemented the “Grand Rounds Boulevard System” somewhat after H.W.S. Cleveland’s design of a continuous boulevard system encircling the city. Wirth’s work was also influential for Minneapolis neighborhoods starting their “Playground and Neighborhood Park System,” changing the flavor of city parks from that of “passive recreation” (walking and driving), to active recreation: bicycling, kite flying, ball playing, sliding on winter hills, and walking on the grass—which had previously been forbidden by the Park Board. Despite objections from traditionalists and some influential families, attendance at these newly-inviting city parks soared from 93,600 in 1907 to 250,000 in 1908, to 7 million prior to World War II, making the Minneapolis Park System “the envy of the rest of the country.” Wirth also led the first hike of the Minneapolis Municipal Hiking Club (Minnehikers) in 1919. Hailed as a visionary and a risk-taking idealist, Wirth was survived by his wife and sons—two of which, Conrad (“Connie”) and Walter L., along with a grandson, Theodore J. (“Ted”), also became architects, bequeathing three generations of landscape architects and the Wirth Environmental Award.

M/A 1999.01.01-03

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Woman's Club of Minneapolis

The Woman’s Club of Minneapolis was founded in March 1907 by and for women for the purpose of “education, civic and social service, study and friendly association.” Its first president was Alice Ames Winter. The club initially met at private homes and public libraries. In 1908 it moved to Handicraft Guild, 89 Tenth Street South, Minneapolis. In 1913 it relocated again to 1526 Harmon Place, Minneapolis. During its first 20 years, the club accomplishments included organizing the first Parents and Teachers Association, and planning and financing free eyes clinics and medical inspections in schools. From 1914-1917 the club supported the War effort by contributing to French relief organizations and working with the Red Cross. By 1926 the club had grown to over 1000 members. Consequently in January 1926 an ambitious fundraising campaign to build new clubhouse began. Over $125,000 in subscriptions was raised. An additional $125000 was raised by bonds. The club officially moved to 410 Oak Grove, Minneapolis on February 28, 1928. Prominent club members included Sister Elizabeth Kenny and Elizabeth Quinlan.

In 1976 the Woman’s Club of Minneapolis sponsored the restoration of the 1848 Ard Godfrey House as a gift to the city of Minneapolis.

M/A 2000.82.01-05

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Woman's Occupational Bureau

The Woman’s Occupation Bureau was organized in 1916 by the College Women’s Club of Minneapolis. The organization was a member of the National Committee of Bureaus of Occupations. Its purpose was to provide vocational counseling services to women, including job placement. Shortly after its formation the Woman’s Occupational Bureau partnered with the Federal Bureau in placing women in jobs vacated by men leaving to join the military during World War I. The bureau reorganized after World War I ended. The Woman’s Occupational Bureau gave “information and advice as to training courses, occupation information based on research, and facts concerning practical opportunity to women desiring to take up professional work.” The club was originally located in the Andrus Building. Later, it relocated to 216 Meyers Arcade, Minneapolis and 1111 Nicollet Avenue, Minneapolis. Miss Ruth Rosholt held the office of president from at least 1929-1935.

In November 1934, the Woman’s Occupational Bureau sponsored the Women’s Week Exposition. The eight-day event, which was held at the Minneapolis municipal auditorium, promoted the achievements of women in Minneapolis and featured exhibits by more than forty local women’s organizations. Featured speakers included Fanny Hurst, Amelia Earhart, Emily Knuebuhl, and Princess Alexandra Kropotkin.

M/A 2000.83.01-03

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Women's Auxiliary to the Railway Mail Association

Organized in 1900 by wives of postal clerks from St. Paul and Minneapolis. The organization was federated in 1911. In 1941 its membership consisted of 181 women. Its purpose was “promotion of social enjoyment and the mutual advancement of the families of Railway Postal Clerks”. Any member of the immediate family of a railway postal clerk or ex-railway postal clerk was eligible for membership.

The organization had a monthly luncheon meeting during the months of January-May and September-December. The organization was active in the Red Cross, the city Milk Fund, and other social welfare community work.

The first president of the associate was Mrs. G. W. Fox. Other prominent members included Mrs. A. C. Jamesgaard, President, 1939; Mrs. David E. Engdahl, President, 1941; Mrs. E.G. Milbrath Historian, 1941; Mrs. O.D. Wisner, National President; Mrs. E. C. Enbody, National President.

M/A 2000.84.01

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Women's Christian Association

Organized January 27, 1866 as the Christian Aid Society of Minneapolis. It was the first women's benevolent association in the state of Minnesota. In 1873 they incorporated as the Women's Christian Association of Minneapolis. Their general purpose was to "provide for the temporal and spiritual wants of the destitute, irrespective of age and color; the dissemination of charities through the medium of its officers and Board of Directors, and furnishing of a house where working women may find board at a moderate price with the influence of a Christian home in Minneapolis." Kate Dunwoody Hall, the Mahala Fisk Pillsbury Club, the Jones-Harrison Home, Mabeth Paige Hall, the Clara Doerr Club and Lindley Hall were all part of the Women's Christian Association mission.

M/A 2000.80.01

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Women's Cooperative Alliance, Inc.

Organized in 1914 and incorporated in 1918. The group is a community organization that co-operates with all constructive religious, political, racial, and social groups. The purpose of the organization is "to awaken the community to its responsibility for juvenile delinquency by shaping public opinion on social hygiene and law enforcement." Three departments carried out its purpose: Parental Education, Research and Investigation, and Big Sister. In 1926, there were 131 local organizations that held membership in the alliance, including churches, clubs, schools and school clubs. Collection consists of various booklets and papers on a variety of subjects such as a study of community conditions in the North, South, and East districts of Minneapolis. Also included in the collection are the articles of incorporation and annual reviews.

The Women’s Co-operative Alliance, Inc. was located at 826-843 Andrus Building, 5th and Nicollet, Minneapolis until 1927, when it moved to Citizens’ Aid Bldg., Suite 212, at the corner of Eighth Street and Fourth Avenue S., Minneapolis. Mrs. Leopold Metzger, President (1921); Mrs. Gustav Schwyzer, Treasurer (1921); Mrs. Charles Cranston Bovey, President (1931); Mrs. Robbins Gilman, General Secretary (1922-1931); Catherine Cooke Gilman, Executive Secretary (1923); Grace E. Pratt, Research Secretary (1925); Fern Chase, Director, Research and Investigation Department (1926).

M/A 2000.85.01

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Women's Literary Clubs

This portfolio of posters was prepared by literary clubs of Minneapolis for the Chicago World's Fair in 1893. Twenty-seven clubs are represented. Each poster tells the history of the club and is decorated in a style that reflects the type of organization the club was.

M/A 2000.77.01

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Young, James Carleton

James Carleton Young was born July 29, 1856 in Marion, Iowa and died on January 7, 1918 from having been “stricken by apoplexy” (such as a stroke, embolism, or thrombosis). He graduated with an M.A. from Cornell College in 1876, and in 1909 Cornell presented him with its first-ever Doctor of Literature degree. In 1880 he stood on the steps of the Parthenon and wondered why the world’s best literature had not been collected under one roof. For the purpose of building this envisioned library himself, and without financial means at that time, he decided to raise the necessary fortune by conducting a large land and colonization business to buy up vacant acreage in Minnesota, Iowa, and the Dakotas, often for less than $1.00, which he then sold for hundreds of dollars per acre in order to purchase first editions. In 1913 he retired to devote himself to building his collection, with the intention of either presenting it when completed to the Library of Congress, the Smithsonian, or to an American university, or instead constructing a library in Loring Park.

Indulging his lifelong love of literature, Young collected first editions of both contemporary and non-contemporary works (including pre-inscribed works by Hugo, Daudet, Dumas, Kipling, and Hans Christian Anderson) then sent the contemporary monographs to their authors with a request that they likewise inscribe them, earning Young the term “bibliophile." The books in his library ultimately numbered in the tens of thousands and required the services of a full-time librarian and bookkeeper, several assistants, catalogers, translators, and agents. His sent up to 5000 letters a year seeking autographs, and insisted upon responding personally to each reply, resulting in bad health, which prompted his physician to advise him to end his work.

Mounting obstacles to his dream of keeping the collection together forced him to allow it to be auctioned off in installments by the Anderson galleries in New York in 1916, and Young took consolation that his books would “pass into the possession of my fellow collectors and enrich hundreds of public and private libraries.” He ended up being better known abroad than in America, and relatively unknown in Minneapolis. He was survived by his wife, Etta May Rogers, and one daughter, Marguerite.

M/A 1998.61.01

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Youngdahl, Luther

Luther Youngdahl was born on May 29, 1896 in Minneapolis, Minnesota and died on June 21, 1978 in Washington, D.C. He attended Gustavus Adolphus College in St. Peter, Minnesota, where he played football until World War I interrupted his studies. After serving briefly in the Army and attaining the rank of second lieutenant, he received a B.A. in 1919 from Gustavus, and his LL.B from the Minnesota College of Law in 1921. He practiced law, served as a municipal and then a district judge, and won the election for associate justice of the Minnesota Supreme Court in 1942.

Youngdahl was elected Governor of Minnesota on the Republican ticket in 1946, and became known for his progressive approach to humane and moral policies, including welfare services, public health and housing, youth “conservation,” as well as his staunch antigambling and antiliquor stance. He was re-elected twice. However, he resigned toward the middle of his third term (1951) to accept a federal district judgeship under Harry S. Truman’s administration, some speculate to avoid his gubernatorial predecessor’s “Stassen for President” campaign. He is probably best known for his May 2, 1953 ruling in "United States v. Lattimore," in which Youngdahl dismissed the indictment, in defiance of widespread anticommunist sentiment, of a professor accused of perjury for having denied being a communist sympathizer. He retired in 1966.

M/A 1998.37.01

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Zetetic Club

The Zetetic Club was founded in 1897 and was federated in 1900. The club was founded by a group of women who had previously been meeting less formally in their homes and studying various topics of interest. After being incorporated, the club kept membership limited to 20 people. By 1943 the club was limited to 30 active members and 10 associate members.

The first president of the club was Mrs. P. M. Thompson. Among the charter members were Mrs. J. H. Prown, Mrs. W. R. Hoag, Mrs. A. Livingston, Mrs. George Plowman, Mrs. F. J. Scriver, Mrs. P. M. Thompson, and Mrs. J. S. Thompson, all of whom lived in Southeast Minneapolis.

The object of the club was the mutual improvement of its members in the study of Art and Literature, but it was quickly broadened to include history, civics and topics of general interest which would vary from year to year as the interests of the club members changed.

M/A 2000.86.01

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