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Redburn : his first voyage : being the sailor-boy confession and reminiscences o
Melville, Herman
Adult Fiction MELVILL

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Melville was born into a seemingly secure, prosperous world, a descendant of prominent Dutch and English families long established in New York State. That security vanished when first, the family business failed, and then, two years later, in young Melville's thirteenth year, his father died. Without enough money to gain the formal education that professions required, Melville was thrown on his own resources and in 1841 sailed off on a whaling ship bound for the South Seas. His experiences at sea during the next four years were to form in part the basis of his best fiction. Melville's first two books, Typee (1846) and Omoo (1847), were partly romance and partly autobiographical travel books set in the South Seas. Both were popular successes, particularly Typee, which included a stay among cannibals and a romance with a South Sea maiden. During the next several years, Melville published three more romances that drew upon his experiences at sea: Redburn (1849) and White-Jacket (1850), both fairly realistic accounts of the sailor's life and depicting the loss of innocence of central characters; and Mardi (1849), which, like the other two books, began as a romance of adventure but turned into an allegorical critique of contemporary American civilization. Moby Dick (1851) also began as an adventure story, based on Melville's experiences aboard the whaling ship. However, in the writing of it inspired in part by conversations with his friend and neighbor Hawthorne and partly by his own irrepressible imagination and reading of Shakespeare and other Renaissance dramatists Melville turned the book into something so strange that, when it appeared in print, many of his readers and critics were dumbfounded, even outraged. Their misgivings were in no way resolved by the publication in 1852 of his next novel, Pierre; or, the Ambiguities Pierre; or, the Ambiguities, a deeply personal, desperately pessimistic work that tells of the moral ruination of an innocent young man. By the mid-1850s, Melville's literary reputation was all but destroyed, and he was obliged to live the rest of his life taking whatever jobs he could find and borrowing money from relatives, who fortunately were always in a position to help him. He continued to write, however, and published some marvelous short fiction pieces Benito Cereno" (1855) and "Bartleby, the Scrivener" (1853) are the best. He also published several volumes of poetry, the most important of which was Battle Pieces and Aspects of the War (1866), poems of occasionally great power that were written in response to the moral challenge of the Civil War. His posthumously published work, Billy Budd (1924), on which he worked up until the time of his death, is Melville's last significant literary work, a brilliant short novel that movingly describes a young sailor's imprisonment and death. Melville's reputation, however, rests most solidly on his great epic romance, Moby Dick. It is a difficult as well as a brilliant book, and many critics have offered interpretations of its complicated ambiguous symbolism. Darrel Abel briefly summed up Moby Dick as "the story of an attempt to search the unsearchable ways of God," although the book has historical, political, and moral implications as well. Melville was born into a seemingly secure, prosperous world, a descendant of prominent Dutch and English families long established in New York State. That security vanished when first the family business failed, and then, two years later, in young Melville's thirteenth year, his father died. Without enough money to gain the formal education that professions required, Melville was thrown on his own resources and in 1841, sailed off on a whaling ship bound for the South Seas. His experiences at sea during the next four years were to form in part the basis of his best fiction. Melville's first two books, "Typee" (1846) and "Omoo" (1847), were partly romance and partly autobiographical travel books set in the South Seas. Both were popular successes, particularly "Typee," which included a stay among cannibals and a romance with a South Sea maiden. During the next several years, Melville published three more romances that drew upon his experiences at sea. "Redburn" (1849) and "White-Jacket" (1850) are both fairly realistic accounts of the sailor's life and depicting the loss of innocence of central characters; and "Mardi" (1849), which, like the other two books, began as a romance of adventure but turned into an allegorical critique of contemporary American civilization. "Moby Dick" (1851) also began as an adventure story, based on Melville's experiences aboard the whaling ship. However, in the writing of it, inspired in part by conversations with his friend and neighbor Hawthorne and partly by his own irrepressible imagination and reading of Shakespeare and other Renaissance dramatists, Melville turned the book into something so strange that, when it appeared in print, many of his readers and critics were dumbfounded, even outraged. Their misgivings were in no way resolved by the publication in 1852 of his next novel, "Pierre; or, the Ambiguities Pierre; or, the Ambiguities," a deeply personal, desperately pessimistic work that tells of the moral ruination of an innocent young man Melville, Herman Life Dates:1819 - 1891 Herman Melville was born in New York City in 1819. One of the most influential American novelists and a great American Romantic author, his work has proven timeless. Melville's most famous novel, "Moby Dick," was published in 1851 and was adapted as a major film starring Gregory Peck as Captain Ahab. "Moby Dick" as well as the famous novels "Typee," "Omoo," and "Redburn," and the short piece "Billy Budd," draw on Melville's real-life seafaring experiences. In addition to his novels, Melville also wrote poetry, stories, and sketches. His most important poetry is the philosophical poem "Clarel," found in his collection "Battle-Pieces and Aspects of the War," published in 1866. Although Herman Melville's work lives on, at the time of his death he was largely forgotten and, indeed, believed himself a literary failure. He died in 1891 after working for 19 years as a customs inspector in New York City. He was survived by his wife and two daughters.

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